Nevada English Language Arts Standards

Introduction

The study of English Language Arts begins before children even enter school. Young children listen and observe the words and interactions of those around them. They communicate at first without words but then, as they add language to their vocabulary, express their thoughts and needs with increasing clarity and precision. Adults communicate basic desires, and some make communication itself an art form.

The study of language arts is the study of communication in many forms. English language arts classes in schools aim to give students the tools to be effective communicators: readers, writers, speakers, and listeners. Students are taught to read by being trained in a variety of reading strategies and processes and are given numerous opportunities to practice their skills. Students write for a variety of purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain. Listening and speaking skills first gained in the English language arts classroom are essential to helping students be active and strong learners in every other classroom and must be encouraged and practiced there, as well. Students should also be provided with opportunities to use telecommunication to collaborate, publish, and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences to reach beyond traditional classroom walls.

The Nevada English Language Arts Standards are intended to give Nevada children the tools and experiences that will help them not only to succeed in school but also to become lifelong and adept readers, writers, listeners, and speakers. The scope of English language arts study extends far beyond the English language arts classroom. Students apply the skills learned there in every content area; for example, students write science reports and make presentations in social studies classes. It is the same with research. While students often gain their research skills through instruction in the English language arts, the practice of those skills spans many content areas. Technology tools used within the English language arts classroom to enhance productivity, communication, and research can assist students as they construct models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.

Many of the standards set out for younger students are on the surface similar to those written for high school students. What changes between the sets of expectations is the developmental abilities of students to, for example, write more sophisticated compositions or to read more complex texts. A suggested reading list, developed by the International Reading Association (IRA), has been appended to these standards. It has been included to convey the level of reading expectations appropriate to students at each particular grade level. The suggested list also gives teachers, students, parents, and community members a sense of the variety of texts that are available for student reading. The IRA's list is updated annually and continually examined to be sure it includes the best and most valuable literature for students. The list is not presented as a mandate, simply as a suggested starting place for choosing books to teach or for helping students make individual choices of reading materials. Districts across Nevada vary in the needs and interests of their students and are encouraged to offer additional choices to teachers and students so that all Nevada students have the opportunity to become strong, dedicated readers.

 

Reading

Content Standard 1.0: Students know and use word analysis skills and strategies to comprehend new words encountered in text.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

1.K.1

Use high-frequency words and environmental print to read simple texts.

1.1.1

Use knowledge of high-frequency words to read texts aloud with fluency, accuracy, and expression.

1.2.1

Read texts aloud with fluency, accuracy, and appropriate intonation and expression; read high-frequency words to build fluency.

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Reading

1.K.2

Identify and use letter/sound relationships.

1.1.2

Use phonics to decode words in context.

1.2.2

Use knowledge of phonics and structural elements (e.g., syllables, basic prefixes, roots, and suffixes) to decode unfamiliar words of one or more syllables in context.

 

1.3.2

Use knowledge of word families, phonics, and structural elements to read and to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in context.

 

1.4.2

Use knowledge of phonics, structural elements, and syntax to read and to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in context.

 

Phonics

Decode - To recognize and interpret; in this case, reading words.

Environmental Print – Print and other symbols, other than books, found in the physical environment, such as street signs, billboards, etc.

Intonation - The rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech.

Phonics – The system by which symbols represent sounds in an alphabetic writing system.

Syntax - The way in which words are put together or related to one another in a sentence; "I ate the sandwich." "the sandwich I ate."

Content Standard 1.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

1.1.3

Identify simple prefixes, common suffixes, and abbreviated words in context.

1.2.3

Identify the meanings of simple prefixes, common suffixes, and abbreviated words in context.

 

 

1.3.3

Use knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, roots, or base words to determine the meaning of words in context.

 

1.4.3

Identify and use knowledge of common Greek- and Latin- derived roots and affixes to determine the meaning of words in context.

 

Word Attack

Affixes - One or more sounds or letters attached to the beginning or end of a word or base; also known as prefixes or suffixes.

 

Content Standard 1.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

1.K.4

Identify initial and final sounds in words.

1.1.4

Use knowledge of simple spelling patterns (e.g., CVC=cat, CVCe=cake, CVVC=boat), blends, and digraphs when reading; apply basic knowledge of alphabetical order.

1.2.4

Identify and use knowledge of spelling patterns such as diphthongs and special vowel spellings when reading; apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., V/CV= su/per, VC/CV= sup/per).

 

1.3.4

Use dictionaries and glossaries to determine the meanings and other features of unknown words.

1.4.4

Use dictionaries and glossaries to determine the meanings and other features of unknown words and derivations of words.

Context and Connotation

 

 

1.1.5

Identify synonyms and antonyms in context.

1.2.5

Identify and use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, and homographs to understand text.

1.3.5

Use knowledge of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, and homographs to expand vocabulary.

1.4.5

Use knowledge of vocabulary and context clues to determine meanings of unknown words.

 

Syntax and Literary Allusion

Antonyms - Words with opposite meanings, for example, hot and cold.

Blends - Two or more consecutive consonants that begin a syllable, such as blend.

CVC - A simple spelling pattern- a consonant, a vowel, and a consonant: cat.

Diphthongs - A vowel sound produced when the tongue glides from one vowel to another, such as in bee, bay, toy, buy.

Homographs - Words that are spelled the same but have different pronunciations or meanings: the bow of a ship; a bow and arrow.

Synonyms - Words with similar meetings, for example pretty and beautiful.

Reading

Content Standard 2.0: Students use reading process skills and strategies to build comprehension.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

2.K.1

Use prior knowledge and picture clues as pre-reading strategies to aid comprehension.

2.1.1

Use, with teacher assistance, pre-reading strategies that aid comprehension such as accessing prior knowledge, predicting, previewing, and setting a purpose.

2.2.1

Identify pre-reading strategies that aid comprehension such as accessing prior knowledge, predicting, previewing, and setting a purpose.

 

 

2.3.1

Use pre-reading strategies such as accessing prior knowledge, predicting, previewing, and setting a purpose to improve comprehension.

 

2.4.1

Use graphic organizers to access prior knowledge, predict, preview, and set a purpose to aid comprehension.

Pre-Reading Strategies

 

 

2.1.2

Use, with teacher assistance, self-correcting strategies such as rereading, substituting (replacing a known word), and reading on.

2.2.2

Identify self-correcting strategies such as self-questioning and rereading.

2.3.2

Use self-correcting strategies such as self-questioning and rereading to gain meaning from text.

 

 

2.4.2

Select and use self-correcting strategies to gain meaning from text.

During Reading – Repairing Comprehension

 

 

2.1.3

Recall details of the text while reading.

2.2.3

Recall the main idea of the text while reading.

 

 

 

2.3.3

Recall essential points in text while reading; make and revise predictions about coming information.

 

2.4.3

Apply skills and strategies of summarizing, paraphrasing, and drawing conclusions to aid comprehension.

 

During Reading - Strategies

Graphic Organizers - Teacher- or student-related tools used to record and organize information when reading, such as schematic drawings; see webbing.

Content Standard 2.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

2.1.4

Retell details of text.

2.2.4

Retell the main idea of text.

 

 

 

 

2.3.4

Restate facts and details in text to share information and organize ideas.

2.4.4

Use note taking, outlining, and summarizing to organize and understand information from text.

 

After Reading – Expanding Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3.5

Adjust reading rate to suit difficulty of text.

2.4.5

Adjust reading rate to suit difficulty and type of text.

 

Adjusting Reading Rate

Reading Rate - The speed at which a selection is read and the manner in which it is read, depending on the purpose; skimming, scanning, studying, or reading for pleasure.

Reading

Content Standard 3.0: Students read to comprehend, interpret, and evaluate literature from a variety of authors, cultures, and times.

By the end Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

3.K.1

Retell beginning, middle, and end of familiar stories.

3.1.1

Identify characters, setting, and sequence of events.

 

3.2.1

Analyze simple elements of a story such as settings, characters, and plot (e.g., restate the logical and sequential development of a story and generate alternative endings to stories).

 

3.3.1

Compare plots, settings, and characters in a variety of works and by a variety of authors.

 

3.4.1

Use knowledge of character, setting, plot, conflict, and resolution to comprehend a variety of works.

Literary Elements

 

 

 

 

3.2.2

Identify simple character traits.

 

 

3.3.2

Make inferences about a character’s traits and check text for verification.

 

3.4.2

Make inferences about and compare characters’ traits using text for verification.

Inferences and Predictions

3.K.3

Listen to stories from different cultures and eras.

3.1.3

Listen to and read stories from different cultures and eras.

3.2.3

Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories from different cultures and eras.

 

 

3.3.3

Compare plots, settings, characters, and points of view in a variety of works and by a variety of authors from different cultures and times.

3.4.3

Identify an historical event or cultural influence as portrayed in literature.

Historical/ Cultural Context

Inferences - Conclusions arrived at by reasoning from evidence.

Content Standard 3.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.4

Identify and compare themes or messages in reading selections.

3.4.4

Identify implied themes in a variety of reading selections.

Theme

3.K.5

Listen for rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration.

3.1.5

Identify rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration.

 

 

 

3.2.5

Compare rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

 

3.3.5

Identify simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia, and hyperbole in text.

 

3.4.5

Locate figurative language, including simile, metaphor, and personification in text.

Stylistic Devices

         

Author’s Use of Stylistic Devices to Achieve Purpose

 

Alliteration – Repetition of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more consecutive words near one another; as in fly o’er waste fens and windy fields.

Figurative Language - Comparing or identifying one with another that has a meaning or connotation familiar to the reader; see metaphor or simile as examples.

Hyperbole - A figure of speech that uses intentional exaggeration: She cried buckets of tears.

Metaphor - An implied comparison between two objects or actions, such as, "The ship knifed through the waters" or "The moon was tossed upon cloudy seas" (the action of the ship being compared to the slicing of a knife and the cloudy sky being compared to an ocean with waves); see simile.

Onomatopoeia - The use of a word whose sound suggests the sense of the word, such as sizzle, clang, or snap, crackle and pop.

Personification - Figure of speech in which something not human is given human characteristics, such as "the tree lifts its arms to the sky."

Simile - An explicit comparison between two objects or actions using like or as, such as "soft as a feather" or "the cat’s tongue feels like sandpaper." See metaphor.

Theme - The dominant idea of a work of literature.

Content Standard 3.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

3.K.7

Listen and respond to poetry and prose.

3.1.7

Read and identify poetry and prose.

3.2.7

Distinguish between poetry and prose.

3.3.7

Read and identify stories, plays, poetry, and non-fiction selections.

3.4.7

Identify structures of stories, plays, poetry, and non-fiction selections.

 

Genres

Prose - Anything not written in poetry form.

Reading

Content Standard 4.0: Students read to comprehend, interpret, and evaluate informational texts for specific purposes.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

4.K.1

Demonstrate an understanding that printed materials provide information.

4.1.1

Locate and use title, pictures, and names of author and illustrator to obtain information.

4.2.1

Locate table of contents and chapter headings and interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.

 

 

 

 

4.3.1

Distinguish essential information from titles, tables of contents, chapter headings, glossaries, indexes, diagrams, charts, and maps to locate information in texts for specific purposes.

 

4.4.1

Use information from titles, tables of contents, chapter headings, glossaries, indexes, diagrams, charts, and maps to comprehend text.

 

Text Features

4.K.2

Recall information.

4.1.2

Identify cause and effect and main idea.

4.2.2

Identify and explain cause and effect and determine the main idea of a passage.

 

 

4.3.2

Distinguish between cause and effect, fact and opinion, and main idea and supporting details in text.

4.4.2

Compare main ideas and important concepts of various texts.

Rhetorical Strategies

4.K.3

Distinguish between statements and questions.

4.1.3

Use text to answer questions.

4.2.3

Ask questions to gain understanding of important information in a text.

4.3.3

Ask questions and support answers by connecting prior knowledge with literal and inferential information in text.

 

4.4.3

Develop hypotheses based upon prior knowledge and information from a text.

Location of Information

 

Content Standard 4.0: Reading

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.3.4

Draw conclusions about texts and support them with textual evidence and experience.

4.4.4

Draw conclusions about texts and support them with evidence from a variety of sources.

 

Evaluation of Logic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.4.5

Identify authors’ purposes for writing.

Effects of Author’s Purpose and Context

4.K.6

Follow, with teacher assistance, a simple written direction.

4.1.6

Read and follow a simple direction to perform a task.

4.2.6

Read and follow simple directions to perform a task.

 

4.3.6

Read and follow three and four-step directions to complete a simple task.

4.4.6

Read and follow multi-step directions to complete a task.

Directions

Writing

Content Standard 5.0: Students write a variety of texts that inform, persuade, describe, evaluate, or tell a story and are appropriate to purpose and audience.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

5.K.1

Draw or write in response to information.

5.1.1

Use a source to write a simple informative paper.

5.2.1

Use at least two sources to write an informative paper.

5.3.1

Locate, acknowledge, and use at least three sources to write an informative paper.

 

5.4.1

Write informative papers with a clear focus using a variety of sources.

Information

5.K.2

Draw or write, with teacher assistance, to communicate.

5.1.2

Write friendly notes.

5.2.2

Write friendly letters.

 

5.3.2

Write friendly letters, formal letters, thank you letters, and invitations that address audience concerns, stated purpose, and context and that include the date, proper salutation, body, closing, and signature.

 

5.4.2

Write organized friendly letters, formal letters, thank you letters, and invitations in an appropriate format for a specific audience and purpose.

Personal/Business

5.K.3

Draw or write stories about familiar experiences and events.

5.1.3

Write stories.

5.2.3

Write stories and poems.

 

5.3.3

Write a narrative or story that moves through a logical sequence of events, provides insight into why the incident is notable, and includes details to develop the plot.

 

 

5.4.3

Write a narrative or story that moves through a logical sequence of events, provides insight into why the incident is notable, and includes details to develop the plot, characters, and setting.

 

Narration

Informative Paper - Any paper that offers information, such as a report or how-to essay.

Content Standard 5.0: Writing

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

5.K.4

Draw or write responses to literature.

5.1.4

Write, with teacher assistance, responses to literature.

5.2.4

Write responses to literature.

 

 

5.3.4

Write responses to literature and experiences.

 

5.4.4

Write responses with supporting details to literary selections.

Literary Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.3.5

Write compositions that retell events of a story in sequence.

5.4.5

Write compositions with a main idea and supporting details.

Summary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.4.6

Write short expository texts with supporting details.

Exposition

Expository - The form of non-fiction writing which informs or explains.

Writing

Content Standard 6.0: Students write with a clear focus and logical development, evaluating, revising, and editing for organization, style, tone, and word choice.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

6.K.1

Select, with teacher assistance, ideas for writing.

6.1.1

Generate and select, with teacher assistance, ideas for writing.

6.2.1

Generate possible ideas for future writing by recalling experiences, talking, drawing, and hearing stories.

 

6.3.1

Generate possible ideas for future writing through group activities such as brainstorming and discussions.

 

6.4.1

Generate ideas for writing through individual activities such as brainstorming and clustering.

Prewriting

6.K.2

Organize and sequence, with teacher assistance, ideas generated through group discussions.

6.1.2

Organize and sequence ideas, with teacher assistance, through drawing and discussing.

6.2.2

Organize ideas through activities such as listing, webbing, and clustering.

6.3.2

Organize ideas through activities such as sequencing and classifying.

 

6.4.2

Organize ideas through activities that draw upon sequencing and classifying skills such as listing, webbing, and mapping.

 

Organizing

6.K.3

Draw or write, with teacher assistance, simple stories.

6.1.3

Write, with teacher assistance, stories or other compositions.

6.2.3

Write stories or other compositions.

 

 

6.3.3

Write simple compositions that address a single topic and include supporting sentences.

 

6.4.3

Write compositions of at least one paragraph with a main idea and supporting details.

Drafting

Brainstorming - Collecting ideas in groups by freely sharing a large number of possibilities.

Topic - The subject being written about.

Webbing - A pre-writing technique that often makes use of circles or squares to organize ideas regarding a topic for writing.

 

Content Standard 6.0: Writing

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

6.1.4

Revise writing, with teacher assistance, to include details.

6.2.4

Revise writing for detail and clarity.

 

6.3.4

Revise drafts, using an established rubric, to improve the coherence and logical progression of ideas.

6.4.4

Revise drafts to improve meaning and focus of writing by adding and deleting words and sentences.

 

Revising

 

 

6.1.5

Edit, with teacher assistance, for correct word usage.

 

6.2.5

Edit, with teacher assistance, for correct word usage.

 

6.3.5

Edit for use of standard English.

 

 

6.4.5

Edit for use of standard English.

Editing

 

 

6.1.6

Identify an audience for writing.

6.2.6

Produce writing for given audiences.

6.3.6

Produce writing with voice for given audiences.

 

6.4.6

Produce writing with voice and purpose for an intended audience.

Recognizing Audience

6.K.7

Share drawings or writing with others.

6.1.7

Read and share writing with others.

6.2.7

Share writing with others and listen to responses.

 

 

 

6.3.7

Share writing with others, listen to responses, and make revisions to drafts based upon reader responses.

 

6.4.7

Share drafts with others and make revisions based upon written responses.

Sharing

Rubric - Scoring guide; written criteria used to judge a particular kind of performance.

Usage - The way words are used correctly in a sentence, such as subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, or consistency of tense.

Voice - The presence of the writer on the page; writing with strong voice leaves the reader feeling a strong connection to the writing and/or writer.

 

Writing

Content Standard 7.0: Students write using standard English grammar, usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

7.1.1

Use nouns, verbs, and pronouns in writing.

7.2.1

Use nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in writing.

 

 

7.3.1

Identify and correctly use subject/verb agreement and past, present, and future verb tenses in writing simple sentences.

 

7.4.1

Identify and correctly use pronoun antecedents, subject/verb agreement, and verb tenses in writing simple, compound, and complex sentences.

 

Grammar/Usage

 

 

7.1.2

Write complete sentences.

7.2.2

Identify complete and incomplete sentences in writing.

 

 

7.3.2

Demonstrate understanding of and write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.

 

7.4.2

Write compound and complex sentences.

Sentence Structure

 

 

7.1.3

Use end punctuation; identify contractions and possessives.

7.2.3

Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and words in a series; use end punctuation, contractions, and possessives correctly.

 

7.3.3

Use quotation marks in dialogue; punctuate city and state, dates, and titles of books.

 

7.4.3

Use correct punctuation in compound sentences; use irregular and plural possessives.

Punctuation

Antecedent - Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns; the antecedent for the pronoun is the noun it takes the place of. For example, "John fell down, but he didn’t hurt himself." Here, the pronouns he and himself take the place of John; therefore John is the antecedent for he and himself.

Exclamatory Sentence - Sentence which expresses emotion; for example "I just qualified for the Olympics!"

Subject/Verb Agreement - Using a singular verb with a single subject or a plural verb with a plural subject.

 

Content Standard 7.0: Writing

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

7.K.4

Capitalize first letters of own first and last names.

7.1.4

Capitalize names, months, days of the week, and words at the beginning of sentences.

 

7.2.4

Capitalize proper nouns and initials.

 

7.3.4

Use rules of capitalization.

 

7.4.4

Use rules of capitalization.

 

Capitalization

7.K.5

Use correct spelling of own first and last names.

7.1.5

Use correct spelling of CVC words and frequently used words (e.g., the, is, my).

7.2.5

Use correct spelling of words containing short, long, and r-controlled vowels, blends, digraphs, and irregular words (e.g., said, who, they).

 

7.3.5

Use correct spelling of words containing affixes, contractions, compounds, and common homophones (e.g., bear-bare).

 

7.4.5

Use correct spelling of frequently used words.

Spelling

7.K.6

Form letters correctly.

7.1.6

Print legibly using left-to-right, top-to-bottom directionality and correct spacing between letters and words.

 

7.2.6

Create readable compositions that are legible.

 

 

 

7.3.6

Create readable and legible compositions, adhering to margins and correct spacing between letters in a word and words in a sentence.

 

 

 

Penmanship

R-controlled vowel - In English when an r colors the way the preceding vowel is pronounced, such as bad and bar or can and car.

Listening & Speaking

Content Standard 8.0: Students listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, style, speaker's purpose, and audience appropriateness.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

8.K.1

Listen for a variety of purposes such as to obtain information, to solve problems, or for enjoyment.

8.1.1

Identify purposes for listening such as to obtain information, to solve problems, or for enjoyment.

8.2.1

Determine the purpose(s) for listening, such as to obtain information, to solve problems, or for enjoyment.

 

8.3.1

Retell and explain what has been said by a speaker.

 

8.4.1

Interpret speaker’s verbal and non-verbal messages and distinguish fact from opinion.

Message

8.K.2

Attend and respond to stories and group discussions.

8.1.2

Attend and respond to presentations.

8.2.2

Attend and respond to public presentations and a variety of media.

 

 

8.3.2

Listen to connect prior experiences, insights, and ideas to the message of a speaker.

 

8.4.2

Listen to identify how speaking techniques are used to convey a message.

Content

 

 

8.1.3

Listen to a variety of dialects.

8.2.3

Distinguish among different dialects.

 

 

 

8.3.3

Identify language and sayings that reflect regions and cultures.

 

8.4.3

Identify language and dialect usage that vary in different contexts, regions, and cultures.

Language

8.K.4

Listen to and follow an oral direction.

8.1.4

Follow simple oral directions to complete a task.

8.2.4

Follow two-step oral directions to complete a task.

8.3.4

Follow three- and four-step oral directions to complete a simple task.

 

8.4.4

Follow oral directions to complete a complex task.

Directions

Dialects - Regional or social varieties of language with vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation different from other regional or social varieties.

 

Listening & Speaking

Content Standard 9.0: Students speak using organization, style, tone, voice, and media aids appropriate to audience and purpose.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

9.K.1

Use and expand vocabulary to communicate ideas.

9.1.1

Use varied vocabulary to communicate ideas.

9.2.1

Select and use specific vocabulary to communicate ideas.

 

 

9.3.1

Use specific vocabulary and apply standard English to communicate ideas.

 

9.4.1

Select and use varied vocabulary and apply standard English to communicate ideas.

Vocabulary Choice

9.K.2

Speak clearly at an understandable pace.

9.1.2

Speak clearly at an understandable pace.

9.2.2

Speak clearly at an understandable pace.

 

 

9.3.2

Use appropriate public speaking techniques such as volume control and eye contact.

 

 

9.4.2

Select and use appropriate public speaking techniques such as rate, pace, and enunciation.

Public Speaking Techniques

9.K.3

Share and respond to ideas.

9.1.3

Present ideas and ask questions in small and large groups.

9.2.3

Make oral presentations that maintain a clear focus.

 

 

9.3.3

Present ideas and supporting details in a logical sequence with a beginning, middle, and ending.

 

9.4.3

Give organized presentations that demonstrate a clear viewpoint.

Types of Speeches

9.K.4

Relate experiences and retell stories.

9.1.4

Recount experiences and retell stories in sequence.

 

9.2.4

Recount experiences and tell stories that move through a logical sequence of events and include character and setting.

 

9.3.4

Read aloud and recite prose and poetry with fluency, rhythm, pace, appropriate intonation, and vocal patterns.

 

9.4.4

Read aloud and recite literary, dramatic, and original works.

Interpretive Speech

 

Content Standard 9.0: Listening & Speaking

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

9.K.5

Give clear directions to complete a simple task.

9.1.5

Give clear directions to complete a simple task.

9.2.5

Give clear directions to complete a simple task.

 

 

9.3.5

Give clear three- and four-step directions to complete a simple task.

 

9.4.5

Give clear and concise directions to complete a task.

Directions

 

Listening & Speaking

Content Standard 10.0: Students participate in discussions to offer information, clarify ideas, and support a position.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

10.K.1

Demonstrate turn-taking in conversations and group discussions.

10.1.1

Demonstrate turn-taking in conversations and group discussions.

10.2.1

Demonstrate turn-taking and eye contact in conversations and group discussions.

 

10.3.1

Speak and listen attentively in conversations and group discussions.

 

10.4.1

Contribute to and listen attentively in conversations and group discussions.

Conversations and Group Discussions

10.K.2

Ask and answer questions.

10.1.2

Ask and answer questions to gather and provide information.

10.2.3

Ask and answer questions to gather and provide information.

10.3.2

Ask pertinent questions; respond to questions with relevant details.

 

10.4.2

Ask and answer questions with relevant details to clarify ideas.

Examination of Evidence

10.K.3

Share ideas and information.

10.1.3

Share ideas and information in small groups.

10.2.3

Present ideas and information in groups.

 

 

10.3.3

Share ideas and information to complete a task.

 

10.4.3

Share ideas, opinions, and information clearly and effectively.

Group Protocol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.3.4

Distinguish between a speaker’s opinion and verifiable facts.

10.4.4

Identify and express opinions and state facts.

Evaluation

Research

Content Standard 11.0: Formulate research questions, use a variety of sources to obtain information, weigh the evidence, draw valid conclusions, and present findings.

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:

By the end of Grade 1, students know and are able to do everything required in the previous grade and:

By the end of Grade 2, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 3, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

11.1.1

Formulate questions, with teacher assistance, to explore areas of interest.

11.2.1

Formulate questions to explore areas of interest.

11.3.1

Formulate questions to investigate topics.

 

11.4.1

Formulate research questions and establish a focus and purpose for inquiry.

 

Choosing a Research Topic

11.K.2

Use, with teacher assistance, reference materials and technology.

11.1.2

Locate and use, with teacher assistance, reference materials and technology.

11.2.2

Locate and use information from reference materials and technology.

11.3.2

Use a variety of library resources, media, and technology to find information on a topic.

11.4.2

Use a variety of library resources, media, and technology to find information on a topic.

 

Locating Information

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.3.3

Give credit for others’ ideas, images, and information.

 

11.4.3

List sources used in research.

Documenting Sources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.3.4

Organize and record information from print and non-print resources.

11.4.4

Organize and record information using note taking from print and non-print resources.

 

Recording Information

Content Standard 11.0: Research

By the end of Kindergarten, students know and are able to:By the end of Grade 4, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

11.1.5

Present, with teacher assistance, research findings using various media.

11.2.5

Present research findings using various media.

 

 

11.3.5

Present research findings for different purposes and audiences.

11.4.5

Present research findings for different purposes and audiences using various media.

 

Presenting Research Findings

Reading

Content Standard 1.0: Students know and use word analysis skills and strategies to comprehend new words encountered in text.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oral Reading

1.5.2

Use knowledge of phonics, structural elements, grammar, and syntax to read and to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in context.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phonics

1.5.3

Identify and use the meaning of high-frequency Greek- and Latin-derived roots and affixes to determine the meaning of words.

 

1.6.3

Determine how the function of a word (part of speech) changes when a suffix (e.g., -ness, -tion,

-able, -ous, -ly) is added.

1.7.3

Identify Greek- and Latin-derived roots and affixes encountered in reading across the curriculum.

1.8.3

Apply knowledge of Greek- and Latin-derived roots and affixes to determine the meaning of unknown words and to increase vocabulary.

 

 

1.12.3

Apply knowledge of Anglo-Saxon-, Greek-, and Latin-derived roots and affixes to determine the meaning of unknown vocabulary across the curriculum.

 

Word Attack

Affixes – One or more sounds or letters attached to the beginning or end of a word or base; also known as prefixes or suffixes.

Content Standard 1.0: Reading

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

1.5.4

Use dictionaries and glossaries to find word origins and to determine meanings of unknown words.

1.6.4

Apply knowledge of common foreign words and phrases to increase comprehension.

1.7.4

Compare and contrast the meanings of closely related words.

1.8.4

Apply knowledge of word origins, roots, structures, and context clues, as well as use dictionaries and glossaries, to comprehend new words in text.

 

1.12.4

Discern subtle differences between closely related words (e.g., thin and slender); use references as necessary.

Context and Connotation

1.5.5

Use context clues such as restatement, definitions, and examples to determine the meaning of unknown words.

 

1.6.5

Identify and define commonly used idioms to increase comprehension.

1.7.5

Explain differences between literal and figurative language in text.

1.8.5

Analyze idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes to infer literal and figurative meaning.

1.12.5

Apply knowledge of syntax and literary allusions to acquire an understanding of new words and to comprehend text.

 

Syntax and Literary Allusion

Allusions– An implied or indirect reference to another person or thing found in another piece of literature or history; in Western literature, quite often a reference to a figure or event in the Bible or mythology.

Idioms– An expression used in language that has a meaning that cannot be derived from the words themselves; an example would be "I ran into Joe the other day." (Here, the meaning is not that you physically "ran into" the other person but that you met him.)

Reading

Content Standard 2.0: Students use reading process skills and strategies to build comprehension.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

2.5.1

Select and apply pre-reading strategies that enhance comprehension

such as making a plan for reading, accessing prior knowledge, choosing a graphic organizer, and selecting reading rate.

 

2.6.1

Develop a plan for reading that includes the determination of purpose, appropriate rate for fiction vs. nonfiction, and related graphic organizers.

2.7.1

Determine techniques for building background knowledge to aid comprehension.

2.8.1

Apply and analyze the use of appropriate pre-reading strategies that enhance comprehension,

such as accessing prior knowledge, predicting, previewing, and setting a purpose.

 

2.12.1

Refine pre-reading strategies such as accessing prior knowledge, predicting, previewing, and setting a purpose to ensure comprehension.

 

Pre-Reading Strategies

2.5.2

Apply self-correcting strategies to gain meaning from text.

 

2.6.2

Confirm and deny predictions while reading.

2.7.2

Confirm, deny, and revise predictions while reading.

2.8.2

Choose reading strategies and self-correct to enhance comprehension.

 

 

2.12.2

Use specific repair strategies such as summarizing, clarifying ambiguities, and consulting other sources.

 

During Reading –Repairing Comprehension

Graphic Organizer – A teacher- or student-related tool used to record and organize information when reading, such as a schematic drawing; see webbing.

Reading Rate – The speed at which a selection is read and the manner in which it is read, depending on the purpose: skimming, scanning, studying, or reading for pleasure.

Content Standard 2.0: Reading

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

2.5.3

Select and use a variety of skills and strategies during reading such as identifying main ideas, identifying fact and opinion or cause and effect, verifying predictions, summarizing, paraphrasing, and drawing conclusions to aid comprehension.

 

2.6.3

Identify and explain the relationships between main ideas and supporting details in text.

 

2.7.3

Make inferences from text to aid comprehension.

2.8.3

Apply and analyze a variety of skills and strategies such as locating essential information, verifying predictions, drawing conclusions, and making inferences to aid comprehension.

 

2.12.3

Plan, monitor, and assess the strategies used to ensure comprehension of a variety of texts.

 

 

 

During Reading - Strategies

2.5.4

Clarify understanding of text by note taking, outlining, completing a graphic organizer, summarizing, and writing a report.

 

2.6.4

Summarize information from several sources.

2.7.4

Select and independently apply appropriate strategies to aid comprehension.

2.8.4

Use outlines, maps, and graphic organizers to aid comprehension.

 

 

 

 

After Reading – Expanding Comprehension

2.5.5

Adjust reading rate to suit reading purpose and difficulty of text.

 

2.6.5

Adjust reading rate to suit the structure of content area texts.

2.7.5

Adjust reading rate to suit the structure of content area texts, newspapers, and other media.

2.8.5

Adjust reading rate to match purpose, task, and text difficulty.

 

 

 

 

Adjusting Reading Rate

Reading

Content Standard 3.0: Students read to comprehend, interpret, and evaluate literature from a variety of authors, cultures, and times.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

3.5.1

Distinguish main incidents of a plot that lead to the climax, and explain how the problem or conflict is resolved.

 

3.6.1

Analyze the influence of setting on characters and on how the problem or conflict is resolved.

 

3.7.1

Distinguish between main plot and subplot; identify various types of conflict; and determine how an incident gives rise to the next event or foreshadows a future event.

 

3.8.1

Analyze and evaluate story elements such as character, conflict, plot, subplot, parallel episodes, and climax to determine their importance to a story.

3.12.1, 3.12..2, and 3.12.3

Analyze the historical and cultural influences that have shaped characters, plots, settings, and themes in recognized works of American, British, and world literature.

 

Literary Elements

3.5.2

Make inferences supported by the text about characters’ traits and motivations.

3.6.2

Make logical predictions about characters’ actions based on evidence from the text.

3.7.2

Compare and contrast the actions of different characters as they react to various circumstances of the plot.

 

3.8.2

Make inferences supported by the text regarding the motives of characters and consequences of action.

 

Inferences and Predictions

3.5.3

Identify historical events and cultural contexts as portrayed in literature.

3.6.3

Compare works of literature from the same historical period written by authors from different cultural, generational, and gender perspectives.

 

3.7.3

Make inferences about an author’s cultural and historical perspective as supported by the text.

3.8.3

Explain an author’s viewpoint and message in relation to the historical and cultural context of the author or work.

 

Historical/ Cultural Context

Inferences – Conclusions arrived at by reasoning from evidence.

Theme – The dominant idea of a work of literature.

Content Standard 3.0: Reading

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

3.5.4

Compare stated and implied themes in a variety of works.

3.6.4

Compare a variety of themes generated by a single topic.

3.7.4

Recognize the difference between a theme and a moral.

3.8.4

Distinguish theme from topic, analyze possible themes, and pinpoint recurring themes in several selections, citing textual evidence to support claims.

 

3.12.4

Use textual evidence to analyze the theme or meaning of a selection.

Theme

3.5.5

Locate and interpret figurative language, including simile, metaphor, and personification in text.

 

3.6.5

Recognize the effect and appropriateness of the rhythm and sounds used by an author in a selection.

3.7.5

Interpret examples of imagery and explain their sensory impact.

3.8.5

Analyze ways authors use imagery, figurative language, and sound to elicit reader response.

 

3.12.5

Analyze and evaluate ways authors use imagery, figures of speech, and sound to elicit reader response.

Stylistic Devices

Figurative Language – Comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning or connotation familiar to the reader; see metaphor or simile as examples. Metaphor – An implied comparison between two objects or actions, such as, "the ship knifed through the water" or "the moon was tossed upon cloudy seas" (the action of the ship being compared to the slicing of a knife and the cloudy sky being compared to an ocean with waves); see simile.

Personification – Figure of speech in which something that is not human is given human characteristics, such as "the tree lifts its arms to the sky."

Simile – An explicit comparison between two objects or actions using like or as, such as "soft as a feather" or "the cat’s tongue feels like sandpaper." See metaphor. Stylistic Devices – Techniques of writing used by an author to achieve a purpose, such as diction, detail, or point-of-view.

Topic – The subject being written about.

Content Standard 3.0: Reading

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

3.5.6

Describe how authors’ writing styles influence reader response.

3.6.6

Recognize that an author creates mood by choosing words with specific connotations.

3.7.6

Contrast the effects of an author’s use of point of view such as first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient, and subjective vs. objective.

 

3.8.6

Compare stylistic elements among texts to determine effects of author choices.

3.12.6

Analyze how irony, tone, mood, style, syntax, and sound of language are used for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes.

Author’s Use of Stylistic Devices to Achieve Purpose

3.5.7

Describe differences in purpose and structure among stories, plays, poetry, and nonfiction selections.

3.6.7

Compare how several literary forms address the same topic.

3.7.7

Identify characteristics and elements of various literary forms.

3.8.7

Compare characteristics and elements of various literary forms, including short stories, poetry, essays, plays, speeches, and novels.

 

3.12.7

Analyze the effects of an author’s choice of literary form.

Genres

Connotation – The suggested or emotional meaning of a word; the following words have the same denotation (dictionary definition) but their connotations are different: thin, skinny, slender.

Point of View – The perspective from which a story is presented to a reader; the most common are first person, third person singular (or limited), and third person omniscient.

Irony – Twisting the meaning of words in ways that create the opposite impression. There are three major types: Verbal irony: when someone says the opposite of what is meant; for example, "Having the flu is so much fun, isn’t it?" Irony of situation: when there is a discrepancy between what may reasonably be expected to happen in a situation and what actually occurs; for example when Character #1 sets a trap for Character #2 but Character #1 falls into the trap himself. Dramatic irony: when the reader/audience knows something that the character does not know.

Syntax – The way in which words are put together or related to one another in a sentence; "I ate the sandwich," "The sandwich I ate," "Ate I the sandwich?"

Rhetorical – Relating to the art of writing as a means of communication or persuasion.

Aesthetic – Appreciative of beauty, especially in writing or art.

Reading

Content Standard 4.0: Students read to comprehend, interpret, and evaluate informational texts for specific purposes.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

4.5.1

Use knowledge of format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, and maps to comprehend text.

 

4.6.1

Identify and use the text features of newspapers, magazines, and editorials to gain meaning.

4.7.1

Compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, instructional manuals) to gain meaning from text.

 

4.8.1 and 4.8.2

Use knowledge of text features and common expository structures such as cause/effect and comparison/contrast to comprehend text.

 

 

4.12.1 and 4.12.2

Analyze text features and rhetorical strategies of different types of primary source documents (e.g., policy statements, speeches, debates, diaries, platforms) and identify how authors use the features to achieve their purposes.

 

 

Text Features

4.5.2

Clarify and connect main ideas and concepts and identify their relationship to other sources and related topics.

 

4.6.2

Find similarities and differences among texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas.

4.7.2

Identify and trace the development of an author’s argument, viewpoint, or perspective in text.

 

Rhetorical Strategies

4.5.3

Read to evaluate new information and hypotheses by comparing them to known information and ideas.

4.6.3

Evaluate information from and differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

4.7.3

Paraphrase and synthesize information from several sources to demonstrate comprehension.

4.8.3

Locate, interpret, organize, and synthesize information in texts to answer specific questions and support ideas.

 

4.12.3

Locate, organize, interpret, and synthesize information in multiple primary and secondary sources to support ideas and positions.

 

Location of Information

Expository – The form of non-fiction writing which informs or explains.

Paraphrase – To read text and then put in your own words.

Synthesize – To combine several sources of ideas in order to produce a coherent whole; a high-level critical-thinking skill.

Content Standard 4.0: Reading

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

4.5.4

Draw conclusions and make inferences about texts supported by textual evidence and experience.

 

4.6.4

Verify information from one source by consulting other sources.

4.7.4

Assess the reasonableness and adequacy of the evidence used to support an author’s position.

 

4.8.4

Identify and assess the validity, accuracy, and adequacy of evidence that supports an author’s ideas.

 

4.12.4

Critique the power, logic, reasonableness, and audience appeal of arguments advanced in public documents.

 

Evaluation of Logic

4.5.5

Identify authors’ ideas and purposes in texts including advertisements and public documents.

 

 

4.6.5

Evaluate how authors’ ideas and purposes shape the content of texts such as advertisements and public documents.

4.7.5

Identify unsupported inferences, faulty reasoning, and propaganda techniques in text.

4.8.5

Summarize authors’ ideas and information in texts, including advertisements and public documents.

4.12.5

Analyze how historical and cultural contexts influence the content and validity of informational texts.

 

Effects of Author’s Purpose and Context

4.5.6

Read and follow multi-step directions in order to perform procedures and complete tasks.

4.6.6

Read and follow multi-step directions to complete a complex task.

4.7.6

Read and follow multi-step directions to complete a complex task.

4.8.6

Read and follow multi-step directions to complete a complex task.

4.12.6

Read and apply multi-step directions to perform complex procedures and tasks.

 

Directions

Writing

Content Standard 5.0: Students write a variety of texts that inform, persuade, describe, evaluate, or tell a story and are appropriate to purpose and audience.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

5.5.1

Write informative papers that develop a clear topic with appropriate facts, details, and examples from a variety of sources.

 

5.6.1

Write informative papers that develop a clear topic with appropriate facts, details, and examples from a variety of sources and have a distinct beginning, middle, and ending.

5.7.1

Write informative papers that have a structured beginning, middle, and conclusion and draw upon a variety of sources.

5.8.1

Write informative papers that develop a topic with introductory and concluding statements and supporting ideas, examples, and details from a variety of sources.

 

 

5.12.1

Write a research paper that develops a thesis, contains information selected from at least ten sources, and conforms to a style manual.

 

 

Information

5.5.2

Write well-organized communications such as friendly or business letters in an appropriate format for a specific audience and purpose.

5.6.2

Extract and reformat information into workplace communications such as lists and memos.

5.7.2

Convert text into visual formats such as charts and graphs for a specific audience and purpose.

5.8.2

Write career and workplace communications such as business letters, resumes, or job applications and produce workplace communications such as memos, charts, and graphs.

 

5.12.2

Produce subject-specific technical writing such as an instructional manual for a shop project or field reports for science.

Personal/ Business

Thesis – A proposition to be proved.

 

Content Standard 5.0: Writing

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

5.5.3

Write a narrative or story that develops a plot or sequence and uses "showing" rather than "telling" details to describe the setting, characters, and events of the story.

 

5.6.3

Write a narrative or short story that includes appropriate transitional words or phrases.

5.7.3

Write narratives or short stories that include dialogue.

5.8.3

Write narratives or short stories that reveal the writer’s attitude toward the subject; relate a clear coherent incident, event, or situation with detail; and employ strategies such as relevant dialogue and physical description.

 

5.12.3

Write reflective texts that draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes.

Narration

5.5.4

Write responses to literary selections by supporting ideas with selected examples.

 

5.6.4

Write responses to literary selections that demonstrate an understanding of character motivation and development.

5.7.4

Write responses to literary selections that demonstrate an understanding of a theme supported by examples from the text.

5.8.4

Write responses to literary selections that demonstrate an understanding of the work, using supporting evidence from the texts and prior knowledge or experience.

 

5.12.4

Write responses to literature that analyze and critique the use of imagery, language, themes, stylistic devices, and tone.

 

 

Literary Analysis

Reflective texts – Writing based on a writer’s prior knowledge or experience.

 

 

Content Standard 5.0: Writing

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

5.5.5 Write summaries of oral and written stories.

5.6.5 Write summaries of poems and magazine or newspaper articles.

5.7.5 Write summaries of procedures such as a science lab experiment or an explanation of how to solve a math problem.

5.8.5 Write summaries that present main ideas and key supporting information.

 

5.12.5 Write summaries or abstracts that distill large amounts of information into clear, concise prose.

 

Summary

5.5.6

Write short expository text that speculates on causes and effects and offer simple persuasive evidence.

 

 

 

 

 

5.6.6

Write short expository text that proposes a solution to a problem and offers simple persuasive evidence in support of the solution.

5.7.6

Write position papers with a clear beginning, middle, and ending that offer persuasive evidence in support of the position.

5.8.6

Write persuasive editorials or essays that state a thesis and arrange supporting details, reasons, and examples, effectively anticipating and answering reader concerns and counter-arguments.

5.12.6

Write persuasive text that evaluates, interprets, or speculates using specific rhetorical devices to support assertions and clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence.

Exposition

Abstract – A summary of the essential points in writing.

Prose – Anything not written in poetry form.

Writing

Content Standard 6.0: Students write with a clear focus and logical development, evaluating, revising, and editing for organization, style, tone, and word choice.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

6.5.1

Generate ideas for future writing through activities such as clustering, brainstorming, and listening to and following story models.

 

6.6.1

Generate ideas for writing by responding to visual stimuli such as objects or photographs.

6.7.1

Generate ideas for writing by responding to stimuli such as current events and magazine articles.

 

6.8.1

Generate ideas for writing by using a variety of strategies such as interviewing; discussing with peers; or responding to literature, film, art, and other media.

 

6.12.1

Generate ideas for writing by selecting appropriate pre-writing strategies with attention to audience, purpose, and personal style.

 

Prewriting

6.5.2

Organize ideas through activities such as outlining, listing, webbing, and mapping.

 

6.6.2

Organize ideas through activities such as categorizing and outlining.

6.7.2

Organize ideas by referring to a graphic organizer completed during reading.

6.8.2

Organize ideas in compositions according to the purpose and task of writing.

 

6.12.2

Organize ideas in compositions by selecting and applying structures such as comparison/

contrast or cause/effect, which enhance the central idea or theme.

 

Organizing

6.5.3

Write paragraphs and compositions with main ideas that are supported by details and state a conclusion.

 

6.6.3

Write paragraphs and compositions with clear transitions between ideas.

6.7.3

Write compositions that focus on a main topic supported by relevant examples, anecdotes, and/or details.

 

6.8.3

Write coherent compositions with a controlling impression or thesis statement.

 

6.12.3

Write compositions that present complex ideas in a sustained and compelling manner.

 

Drafting

Brainstorming – Collecting ideas in groups by freely sharing a large number of possibilities.

Thesis Statement – A sentence containing the main idea of a piece of writing.

Webbing – A prewriting technique that often makes use of circles or squares to organize ideas regarding a topic for writing.

Content Standard 6.0: Writing

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

6.5.4

Revise compositions to improve the meaning and focus of writing by adding, deleting, clarifying, and rearranging words and sentences.

 

6.6.4

Revise compositions to improve organization and consistency of ideas.

6.7.4

Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary.

 

 

6.8.4

Revise writing, using given criteria, to improve word choice, organization, and point of view.

 

6.12.4

Revise writing to improve word choice, organization, and point of view, using given criteria such as rubrics or feedback from others.

 

Revising

6.5.5

Edit for use of standard English.

 

6.6.5

Edit for use of standard English.

6.7.5

Edit for use of standard English.

 

6.8.5

Edit for use of standard English.

 

6.12.5

Edit for use of standard English.

 

Editing

6.5.6

Produce writing with a voice that shows awareness of an intended audience and purpose.

 

6.6.6

Produce writing with a voice that shows awareness of an intended audience and purpose.

 

6.7.6

Produce writing with a voice that addresses an intended audience and purpose.

 

6.8.6

Produce writing with a voice that is expressive and appropriate to audience and purpose.

 

Recognizing Audience

Rubric – Scoring guide; written criteria used to judge a particular kind of performance.

Voice – The presence of the writer on the page; writing with strong voice leaves the reader feeling a strong connection to the writing and/or writer.

Content Standard 6.0: Writing

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

6.5.7

Share final drafts with a designated audience.

 

 

 

 

 

Sharing

Writing

Content Standard 7.0: Students write using standard English grammar, usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

7.5.1

Identify and correctly use pronoun case, comparative and superlative modifiers, and often misused verbs such as lie/lay, sit/set, and rise/raise in writing.

 

7.6.1

Use verb tense correctly and consistently in writing.

7.7.1

Use parts of speech correctly and consistently in writing.

7.8.1

Apply the rules of usage and grammar such as subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, and verb tense usage in writing.

 

7.12.1

Apply the rules of usage, grammar, and capitalization with few significant errors; use modifiers, parallel structure, and subordination correctly in writing.

 

Grammar/Usage

7.5.2

Identify and write prepositional phrases, appositives, and independent clauses; use transitions and conjunctions to elaborate ideas.

 

7.6.2

Identify and correct fragments and run-on sentences in writing.

7.7.2

Use various sentence structures in writing.

7.8.2

Use varied sentence structure, including complex sentences, to reinforce the presentation of a personal writing style.

7.12.2

Use multiple structures such as inversion, parallelism, and sentences of varying lengths for stylistic effect.

 

Sentence Structure

Appositives – A word or phrase that renames the noun or pronoun before it; for example, "John, an experienced teacher, serves on several curriculum committees."

Antecedent – Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns; the antecedent for the pronoun is the noun it takes the place of. For example, "John fell down, but he didn’t hurt himself." Here, the pronouns he and himself take the place of John; therefore, John is the antecedent for he and himself.

Comparative – The form of an adjective or adverb used when comparing two things, such as warmer, more beautiful, or better.

Inversion – A change in normal word order, such as from "I see the cat" to "The cat I see."

Modifiers – Adjectival or adverbial words, phrases, or clause.

Parallelism – Ideas in a series are arranged in words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs that are similar in grammatical structure; Words: "he was left alone, lonely, and heartbroken" (adjectives) Phrases: "…government of the people, by the people and for the people…" (prepositional phrases).

Subject/Verb Agreement – Using a singular verb with a singular subject or a plural verb with a plural subject.

Subordination – The act of putting an idea of lesser importance in a clause that cannot stand alone; for example, "Because he was late, he missed the bus."

Superlative Modifier – The form of an adjective or adverb used when comparing three or more things, such as warmest, most beautiful, or best.

Usage– The way words are used correctly in a sentence, such as subject/verb agreement, pronoun antecedent agreement, or consistency of tense.

 

Content Standard 7.0: Writing

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

7.5.3

Use colons to introduce a list; use quotation marks around exact words of speakers and names of poems, songs, and short stories.

7.6.3

Use semi-colons to correct run-on sentences, colons in business letters, and apostrophes in contractions and possessives.

 

7.7.3

Identify and correctly use hyphens and parentheses; use correct punctuation in complex sentences.

7.8.3

Use internal and external punctuation correctly.

 

7.12.3

Use rules of punctuation; manipulate conventions for emphasis in writing.

Punctuation

7.5.4

Use rules of capitalization.

 

7.6.4

Use rules of capitalization.

7.7.4

Use rules of capitalization.

7.8.4

Use rules of capitalization.

 

 

 

 

Capitalization

7.5.5

Use correct spelling of frequently used words, with special attention to roots, suffixes, and prefixes.

 

7.6.5

Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their/they’re/there and you’re/your).

7.7.5

Demonstrate conventional spelling.

7.8.5

Demonstrate conventional spelling.

 

 

 

Spelling

Conventions – The usual rules of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

External Punctuation – Punctuation found at the end of a sentence i.e., period, question mark, or exclamation point.

Listening and Speaking

Content Standard 8.0: Students listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, style, speaker’s purpose, and audience appropriateness.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

8.5.1

Interpret a speaker’s verbal and non-verbal messages, purposes, and viewpoint; distinguish fact from opinion.

 

8.6.1

Identify the tone, mood, and emotion conveyed in both verbal and non-verbal communication.

8.7.1

Identify speaker’s main ideas.

8.8.1

Identify and paraphrase speaker’s main ideas and supporting evidence to draw meaning from and ask relevant questions about content and purpose of oral presentations.

 

8.12.1

Summarize and evaluate communications that inform, persuade, and entertain.

 

Message

8.5.2

Identify the intent of persuasive speaking techniques, evaluate a speaker’s delivery using given criteria, and provide constructive feedback.

 

8.6.2

Identify effective speaking techniques and develop criteria for evaluating oral presentations.

8.7.2

Determine a speaker’s attitude toward the subject.

8.8.2

Evaluate content and delivery of oral presentations using given criteria and provide constructive feedback.

 

8.12.2

Create and apply criteria for evaluating content and delivery of oral and multi-media presentations.

 

Content

8.5.3

Identify and describe language and dialect usage that vary in different contexts, regions, and cultures.

 

8.6.3

Recognize that language usage varies in formal and informal settings; use situational appropriate language.

8.7.3

Recognize colloquialisms and jargon as reflections of contexts, regions, and cultures.

8.8.3

Analyze how dialects associated with informal and formal speaking contexts are reflected in slang, jargon, and language styles.

 

8.12.3

Analyze the effects of language and dialect on audience response.

 

Language

Dialects – Regional or social varieties of language with vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation different from other regional or social varieties.

Jargon – The technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group; for example, people who do not use computers might not know the special computer meaning of words such as mouse, icon, or megabyte.

Content Standard 8.0: Listening and Speaking

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

8.5.4

Follow multi-step oral directions to complete a task.

 

8.6.4

Follow multi-step oral directions to complete a task.

8.7.4

Follow multi-step oral directions to complete a task.

 

8.8.4

Follow multi-step oral directions to complete a complex task.

 

Following Directions

Listening and Speaking

Content Standard 9.0: Students speak using organization, style, tone, voice, and media aids appropriate to audience and purpose.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

9.5.1

Use specific and varied vocabulary and apply standard English to communicate ideas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary Choice

9.5.2

Select and use appropriate public speaking techniques such as gestures, facial expressions, posture, speaking rate/pace, and enunciation.

 

9.6.2

Develop and deliver presentations that include media aids appropriate to audience and purpose.

9.7.2

Develop and deliver presentations that integrate appropriate public speaking techniques and media aids.

9.8.2

Select and use vocabulary and public speaking techniques appropriate to audience and purpose.

 

9.12.2

Make formal oral or multi-media presentations, using vocabulary and public speaking techniques appropriate to audience and purpose.

 

Public Speaking Techniques

9.5.3

Give organized reports that demonstrate a clear point of view and incorporate multi-media aids as needed for enhancement.

 

9.6.3

Organize and deliver a "how to" speech in a logical sequence and incorporate multi-media aids as needed for enhancement.

9.7.3

Organize and deliver a persuasive speech appropriate to audience and purpose.

9.8.3

Organize and deliver planned and impromptu presentations appropriate to audience and purpose.

 

9.12.3

Organize and deliver planned, extemporaneous, and impromptu presentations that address a topic and engage the audience.

 

Types of Speeches

9.5.5

Give multi-step directions to complete a task.

9.6.5

Give organized multi-step directions to complete a task.

9.7.5

Give clear and concise multi-step directions to complete a task.

 

9.8.5

Give clear and concise multi-step directions to complete a complex task.

Giving Directions

Extemporaneous – Prepared but spoken without notes or text.

Impromptu – Composed or performed on the spur of the moment.

Listening and Speaking

Content Standard 10.0: Students participate in discussions to offer information, clarify ideas, and support a position.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

10.5.1

Participate in conversations and group discussions as a contributor and leader.

 

 

10.6.1

Participate in conversations and group discussions to develop active listening skills.

10.7.1

Participate in conversations and group discussions to develop techniques for providing constructive feedback.

10.8.1

Participate in conversations and group discussions as an active listener to provide constructive feedback.

 

10.12.1

Participate in problem-solving conversations or group discussions by identifying, synthesizing, and evaluating data.

Conversations and Group Discussion

10.5.2

Ask and answer questions to clarify or extend ideas.

 

10.6.2

Ask and answer questions to generate possible solutions to a problem.

10.7.2

Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information offered in support of an opinion.

 

10.8.2

Ask for and provide specific evidence in support of an opinion.

 

10.12.2

Negotiate to arrive at consensus by proposing and examining possible options.

Examination of Evidence

10.5.3

Share ideas, opinions, and information with a group, choosing language that communicates messages clearly and effectively.

 

10.6.3

Develop criteria for evaluating effective group participation.

10.7.3

Participate in discussions in a variety of formats such as committees, panels, and debates.

10.8.3

Apply understanding of agreed-upon rules and individual roles in a variety of discussion formats.

 

10.12.3

Identify and practice techniques such as setting time limits for speakers and deadlines for decision making to improve productivity of group discussions.

 

Group Protocol

10.5.4

Compare and contrast ideas and viewpoints of several speakers.

10.6.4

Evaluate the logic and effectiveness of a speaker’s argument(s).

10.7.4

Develop logical arguments in support of opinions.

10.8.4

Express supported opinions while considering multiple or divergent viewpoints.

 

10.12.4

Justify a position using logic and refuting opposing viewpoints.

Evaluation

Research

Content Standard 11.0: Formulate research questions, use a variety of sources to obtain information, weigh the evidence, draw valid conclusions, and present findings.

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

11.5.1

Formulate research questions and establish a focus and purpose for inquiry.

11.6.1

Formulate a plan for research to answer a focused question.

11.7.1

Formulate questions and purpose statements that guide cross-curricular research.

 

 

 

11.8.1

Formulate questions and develop a clear statement of purpose that lead to inquiry, investigation, and research of cross-curricular topics.

 

11.12.1

Formulate cross-curricular research questions and use an appropriate research design to gather information.

Choosing a Research Topic

11.5.2

Select information from multiple resources to answer questions.

11.6.2

Distinguish between information from primary and secondary sources.

11.7.2

Locate and use primary and secondary sources to investigate a research question.

 

11.8.2

Locate and select relevant information from multiple primary and secondary sources.

11.12.2

Evaluate possible sources of information for credibility and usefulness.

Locating Information

11.5.3

List sources used in research.

11.6.3

Document research sources in order to prevent plagiarism.

11.7.3

Apply various methods of citing sources within compositions.

11.8.3

Document research sources using a given format.

11.12.3

Cite sources of information using a standard method of documentation.

Documenting Sources

Content Standard 11.0: Research

 

By the end of Grade 5, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 6, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 7, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 8, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

By the end of Grade 12, students know and are able to do everything required in previous grades and:

11.5.4

Record information using given note-taking and organizational formats.

11.6.4

Record information using note-taking and organizational formats.

11.7.4

Record information using a self-selected note-taking or organizational strategy.

11.8.4

Record information using a variety of note-taking and organizational strategies.

 

Recording Information

11.5.5

Present research findings using charts, maps, or graphs with written text.

 

11.6.5

Present research findings using written text or multi-media.

 

 

11.7.5

Organize and present research findings using written text and/or multi-media.

 

11.8.5

Organize and present research findings using appropriate multi-media.

11.12.5

Organize and present research findings in a multi-media format.

Presenting Research Findings

 

Glossary for English Language Arts

Abstract A summary of the essential points in writing.

Aesthetic Appreciative of beauty, especially in writing and art.

Affixes One or more sounds or letters attached to the beginning or end of a word or base; also known as prefixes or suffixes.

Alliteration Repetition of the same letter or sound at the beginning of two or more consecutive words near one another; as in fly o’er waste fens and windy fields.

Allusions An implied or indirect reference to another person or thing found in another piece of literature or in history; in Western literature, quite often a reference to a figure or event in the Bible or mythology.

Analogy A comparison based upon a resemblance between two things; probably the two most common are the simile and the metaphor.

Antecedent Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns; the antecedent for the pronoun is the noun it takes the place of. For example, "John fell down, but he didn’t hurt himself." Here, the pronouns he and himself take the place of John; therefore, John is the antecedent for he and himself.

Antonyms Words with opposite meanings; for example, hot and cold.

Appositives A word or phrase that renames the noun or pronoun before it; for example, "John, an experienced teacher, serves on several curriculum committees.

Blends Two or more consecutive consonants that begin a syllable, such as blend.

Brainstorming Collecting ideas in groups by freely sharing a large number of possibilities.

Comparative The form of an adjective or adverb used when comparing two things, such as warmer, more beautiful, or better.

Connotation The suggested or emotional meaning of a word; the following words have the same denotation (dictionary definition) but their connotations are different: thin, skinny, slender.

Conventions The usual rules of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

CVC A simple spelling pattern - a consonant, a vowel, and a consonant: cat.

Declarative Sentences Sentences which make statements; for example, "Becky is a student."

Decode To recognize and interpret; in this case, in reading words.

Dialects Regional or social varieties of language with vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation different from other regional or social varieties.

Diphthongs A vowel sound produced when the tongue glides from one vowel to another such as in bee, bay, toy, buy.

Environmental Print and other graphic symbols, other than books, found in the physical

Print environment, such as street signs, billboards, etc.

Exclamatory Sentence Sentence which expresses emotion; for example "I just qualified for the Olympics!"

Expository The form of non-fiction writing which informs or explains.

Extemporaneous Prepared, but spoken without notes or text.

External Punctuation Punctuation found at the end of a sentence i.e., period, question mark, or exclamation point.

Figurative Language Comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning or connotation familiar to the reader; see metaphor or simile as examples.

Graphic Organizer A teacher- or student-related tool used to record and organize information when reading, such as a schematic drawing; see webbing.

Homographs Words that are spelled the same but have different pronunciations or meanings i.e. the bow of a ship and a bow and arrow.

Hyperbole A figure of speech that uses intentional exaggeration: She cried buckets of tears.

Hypothesis An assumption made to test its logical consequences.

Idioms An expression used in a language that has a meaning that cannot be derived from the words themselves; an example would be "I ran into Joe the other day." (Here, the meaning is not that you physically "ran into" the other person but that you met him.)

Imperative Sentence Sentences that give commands; for example, "Open your books to page 322."

Impromptu Composed or performed on the spur of the moment.

Inferences Conclusions arrived at by reasoning from evidence.

Informative Paper Any paper that offers information, such as a report or a how-to essay.

Internal Punctuation Punctuation within a sentence, such as commas, semicolons, or apostrophes.

Interrogative Sentence Sentences which ask questions; for example, "Who is that?"

Intonation The rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech.

Inversion A change in normal word order, such as from "I see the cat" to "The cat I see."

Irony Twisting the meaning of words in ways that create the opposite impression. There are three major types:

Verbal irony: when someone says the opposite of what is meant; for example, "Having the flu is so much fun, isn’t it?"

Irony of situation: when there is a discrepancy between what may reasonably be expected to happen in a situation and what actually occurs; for example when Character #1 sets a trap for Character #2 but Character #1 falls into the trap himself.

Dramatic irony: when the reader/audience knows something that the character does not know.

Jargon The technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group; for example, people who do not use computers might not know the special computer meaning of such words as mouse or icon or megabyte.

Metaphor An implied comparison between two objects or actions, such as, "The ship knifed through the water" or "The moon was tossed upon cloudy seas" (the action of the ship being compared to the slicing of a knife and the cloudy sky being compared to an ocean with waves); see simile.

Modifiers Adjectival and adverbial words, phrases, or clauses.

Multimedia Using different means of communication such as overhead transparencies, flip charts, or audio tapes.

Onomatopoeia The use of a word whose sound suggests the sense of the word, such as sizzle, clang, or snap, crackle, and pop.

Parallelism Ideas in a series are arranged in words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs that are similar in grammatical structure: Words: "he was left alone, lonely, and heartbroken " (adjectives). Phrases: "...government of the people, by the people, and for the people..." (prepositional phrases).

Paraphrase To read text and then put in your own words.

Personification Figure of speech in which something that is not human is given human characteristics, such as "The tree lifts its arms to the sky."

Phonics The system by which symbols represent sounds in an alphabetic writing system.

Point of View The perspective from which a story is presented to a reader; the most common are first person, third person singular (or limited), and third person omniscient.

Prose Anything not written in poetry form.

R-Controlled Vowel In English, when an r colors the way the preceding vowel is pronounced, such as bad and bar or can and car.

Reading Rate The speed at which a selection is read and the manner in which it is read, depending on the purpose; skimming, scanning, studying, or reading for pleasure.

Reflective Texts Writing based on a writer’s prior knowledge or experience.

Rhetorical Relating to the art of writing as a means of communication or persuasion.

Rubric Scoring guide; written criteria used to judge a particular kind of performance.

"Showing," Writing that allows the reader to see, hear, touch, taste, or smell what is written;

Not "Telling" rather than saying "He was angry," saying "He trembled and pounded his fist on the table, frightening us all."

Simile An explicit comparison between two objects or actions using like or as, such as "Soft as a feather" or "The cat’s tongue feels like sandpaper." See metaphor.

Stylistic Devices Techniques of writing used by an author to achieve a purpose, such as diction, detail, or point of view.

Subject/Verb Using a singular verb with a singular subject or a plural verb with a plural

Agreement subject.

Subordination The act of putting an idea of lesser importance in a clause that cannot stand alone; for example, "Because he was late, he missed the bus."

Superlative Modifier The form of an adjective or adverb used when comparing three or more things, such as warmest, most beautiful, or best.

Synonyms Words with similar meanings; for example, pretty and beautiful.

Syntax The way in which words are put together or related to one another in a sentence; "I ate the sandwich." "The sandwich I ate." "Ate I the sandwich?"

Synthesize To combine several sources of ideas in order to produce a coherent whole; a high-level critical-thinking skill.

Theme The dominant idea of a work of literature.

Thesis A proposition to be proved.

Thesis Statement A sentence containing the main idea of a piece of writing.

Topic The subject being written about.

Usage The way words are used correctly in a sentence, such as subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, or consistency of tense.

Voice The presence of the writer on the page; writing with strong voice leaves the reader feeling a strong connection to the writing and/or writer.

Webbing A prewriting technique that often makes use of circles or squares to organize ideas regarding a topic for writing.