[Rev. 11/21/2013 9:57:01 AM--2013]

CHAPTER 179 - SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS OF A CRIMINAL NATURE; SEALING RECORDS OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS; REWARDS; FORMS

SEARCH WARRANTS

NRS 179.015           “Property” defined.

NRS 179.025           Authority for issuance.

NRS 179.035           Grounds for issuance.

NRS 179.045           Issuance and contents; sealing information upon which warrant is based; time for serving warrant.

NRS 179.055           Officer may break door to serve warrant after admittance refused; breaking of door or window to liberate officer or person acting in aid of officer; use of reasonable and necessary force.

NRS 179.065           Person charged with felony may be searched.

NRS 179.075           Execution and return of warrant with inventory.

NRS 179.085           Motion for return of property and to suppress evidence.

NRS 179.095           Return of papers to clerk.

NRS 179.105           Retention of property taken on warrant by officer subject to court order; restoration of property to person from whom it was taken; technical irregularities will not quash warrant.

NRS 179.115           Scope.

IDENTIFICATION OF FUNDS

NRS 179.1152         Identification of name, personal information and funds associated with prepaid or stored value card; contract to assist.

FORFEITURES

NRS 179.1156         Scope.

NRS 179.1157         Definitions.

NRS 179.1158         “Claimant” defined.

NRS 179.1159         “Plaintiff” defined.

NRS 179.1161         “Proceeds” defined.

NRS 179.1162         “Property” defined.

NRS 179.1163         “Protected interest” defined.

NRS 179.11635       “Willful blindness” defined.

NRS 179.1164         Property subject to seizure and forfeiture; exceptions.

NRS 179.1165         Seizure of property: Requirement of process.

NRS 179.1169         Title in property; transfer.

NRS 179.1171         Proceedings for forfeiture: Rules of practice; complaint; service of summons and complaint; answer; parties.

NRS 179.1173         Proceedings for forfeiture: Priority over other civil matters; motion to stay; standard of proof; conviction of claimant not required; confidentiality of informants; return of property to claimant.

NRS 179.1175         Disposition of property after seizure and forfeiture.

NRS 179.118           Distribution of proceeds from forfeited property.

NRS 179.1185         Issuance of certificate of title for forfeited vehicle or other conveyance.

NRS 179.1187         Establishment of account for proceeds from forfeited property; restrictions on use of money in account; distribution of certain amount to school district; duties of school district and chief administrative officer of law enforcement agency.

NRS 179.119           Reports by law enforcement agencies that receive forfeited property or related proceeds; inclusion of such anticipated revenue in budget prohibited.

NRS 179.121           Forfeiture of personal property and conveyances used in commission of crime.

FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY RELATING TO TECHNOLOGICAL CRIMES

NRS 179.1211         Definitions.

NRS 179.1213         “Proceeds” defined.

NRS 179.1215         “Property” defined.

NRS 179.1217         “Technological crime” defined.

NRS 179.1219         Property subject to forfeiture; substitution for unreachable property.

NRS 179.1221         Forfeiture as part of plea agreement.

NRS 179.1223         Temporary restraining order to preserve property.

NRS 179.1225         Orders to secure property.

NRS 179.1227         Order of forfeiture; order to protect interests of State.

NRS 179.1229         Property subject to civil forfeiture; required proof; where action must be instituted.

NRS 179.1231         Seizure of property before forfeiture and final disposition; institution of proceedings; intercession by district attorney or Attorney General; interlocutory actions by court; order of forfeiture.

NRS 179.1233         Sale of forfeited property; use of proceeds; deposit of balance of proceeds in Account for the Technological Crime Advisory Board; payment of certain encumbrances.

NRS 179.1235         Limitation of actions.

DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY STOLEN OR EMBEZZLED

NRS 179.125           Stolen or embezzled property held by peace officer subject to magistrate’s order.

NRS 179.135           Order for delivery to owner; payment of expenses.

NRS 179.145           Magistrate to deliver property to owner when it comes into magistrate’s custody; proof of title and payment of expenses.

NRS 179.155           Court may order return of property to owner.

NRS 179.165           Notice must be provided by law enforcement agency to owner, pawnbroker and other interested persons; contents of notice; sale or disposal of unclaimed property by county treasurer; records.

CRIMINAL EXTRADITION (UNIFORM ACT)

NRS 179.177           Short title.

NRS 179.179           Definitions.

NRS 179.181           Fugitives from justice; duty of Governor.

NRS 179.183           Form of demand.

NRS 179.185           Governor may investigate case.

NRS 179.187           Extradition of persons imprisoned or awaiting trial in another state or who have left demanding state under compulsion.

NRS 179.189           Extradition of persons not present in demanding state at time of commission of crime.

NRS 179.191           Governor’s warrant of arrest.

NRS 179.193           Manner and place of execution.

NRS 179.195           Authority of arresting officer.

NRS 179.197           Rights of accused person; application for writ of habeas corpus.

NRS 179.199           Penalty for noncompliance with NRS 179.197.

NRS 179.201           Confinement in jail or detention facility when necessary.

NRS 179.203           Arrest before requisition.

NRS 179.205           Arrest without warrant.

NRS 179.207           Commitment to await requisition; bail.

NRS 179.209           Bail: In what cases; conditions of bond.

NRS 179.211           Extension of time of commitment; adjournment.

NRS 179.213           Forfeiture of bail.

NRS 179.215           Persons under criminal prosecution in this State at time of requisition.

NRS 179.217           Guilt or innocence of accused: When inquired into.

NRS 179.219           Governor may recall warrant or issue alias.

NRS 179.221           Fugitives from this State; duty of Governor.

NRS 179.223           Application for issuance of requisition: By whom made; contents.

NRS 179.225           Costs and expenses.

NRS 179.227           Immunity from service of process in certain civil actions.

NRS 179.229           Written waiver of extradition proceedings.

NRS 179.231           Nonwaiver by this State.

NRS 179.233           No right of asylum; no immunity from other criminal prosecutions while in this State.

NRS 179.235           Interpretation.

SEALING RECORDS OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS

NRS 179.241           Definitions.

NRS 179.242           “Agency of criminal justice” defined.

NRS 179.243           “Disposition” defined.

NRS 179.244           “Record” defined.

NRS 179.245           Sealing records after conviction: Persons eligible; petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

NRS 179.245           Sealing records after conviction: Persons eligible; petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

NRS 179.255           Sealing records after dismissal or acquittal: Petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

NRS 179.255           Sealing of records after dismissal, decline of prosecution or acquittal: Petition; notice; hearing; order; inspection of records. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

NRS 179.259           Sealing records after completion of program for reentry: Persons eligible; procedure; order; inspection of sealed records by professional licensing board.

NRS 179.265           Rehearings after denial of petition: Time for; number.

NRS 179.275           Order sealing records: Distribution to Central Repository and persons named in order; compliance.

NRS 179.285           Order sealing records: Effect; proceedings deemed never to have occurred; restoration of civil rights.

NRS 179.295           Reopening of sealed records. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

NRS 179.295           Reopening of sealed records. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

NRS 179.301           Inspection of sealed records by certain agencies.

REWARDS

NRS 179.310           Reward for apprehension of robber.

FORMS

NRS 179.315           Use of authorized forms.

NRS 179.320           Warrant of arrest.

NRS 179.325           Summons.

NRS 179.330           Search warrant.

NRS 179.335           Motion for return of seized property and suppression of evidence.

NRS 179.340           Bail: After arrest and before preliminary examination.

NRS 179.345           Endorsement on warrant of arrest for commitment for preliminary examination.

NRS 179.350           Discharge after preliminary examination.

NRS 179.355           Commitment and bail after preliminary examination.

NRS 179.360           Commitment where defendant held to answer after preliminary examination.

NRS 179.365           Bail after preliminary examination and before arraignment.

NRS 179.370           Indictment.

NRS 179.375           Information.

NRS 179.380           Warrant upon finding of presentment, indictment or information.

NRS 179.385           Bail after arrest on warrant following finding of presentment, indictment or information.

NRS 179.390           Subpoena; subpoena duces tecum.

NRS 179.395           Bench warrant after conviction.

NRS 179.400           Undertaking on recommitment.

INTERCEPTION OF WIRE OR ORAL COMMUNICATION

NRS 179.410           Definitions.

NRS 179.415           “Aggrieved person” defined.

NRS 179.420           “Contents” defined.

NRS 179.425           “Electronic, mechanical or other device” defined.

NRS 179.430           “Intercept” defined.

NRS 179.435           “Investigative or law enforcement officer” defined.

NRS 179.440           “Oral communication” defined.

NRS 179.445           “Person” defined.

NRS 179.450           “State” defined.

NRS 179.455           “Wire communication” defined.

NRS 179.458           Provisions inapplicable to recording of certain telephone calls by public utility.

NRS 179.460           Cases in which interception of wire or oral communications may be authorized.

NRS 179.465           Disclosure or use of intercepted communications.

NRS 179.470           Application for order authorizing interception of communications; prerequisites to issuance of order.

NRS 179.475           Order authorizing interception of communications: Contents; duration; extension.

NRS 179.480           Progress reports to judge.

NRS 179.485           Recording.

NRS 179.490           Sealing of applications and orders; disclosure.

NRS 179.495           Notice to parties to intercepted communications.

NRS 179.500           Contents of intercepted communications inadmissible in evidence unless transcript provided to parties before trial.

NRS 179.505           Motion to suppress.

NRS 179.510           Appeal by State from order granting motion to suppress.

NRS 179.515           Reports by justices of Supreme Court, district judges, Attorney General and district attorneys.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

NRS 179.525           Temporary changes in telephone service permitted where hostages are being held or suspects are barricaded.

NRS 179.530           Order authorizing use of pen register or trap and trace device.

NRS 179.535           Receipt for property taken from person arrested for public offense.

_________

_________

SEARCH WARRANTS

      NRS 179.015  “Property” defined.  As used in NRS 179.015 to 179.115, inclusive, the term “property” includes documents, books, papers and any other tangible objects.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1458)

      NRS 179.025  Authority for issuance.  A search warrant authorized by NRS 179.015 to 179.115, inclusive, may be issued by a magistrate of the State of Nevada.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1458)

      NRS 179.035  Grounds for issuance.  A warrant may be issued under NRS 179.015 to 179.115, inclusive, to search for and seize any property:

      1.  Stolen or embezzled in violation of the laws of the State of Nevada, or of any other state or of the United States;

      2.  Designed or intended for use or which is or has been used as the means of committing a criminal offense; or

      3.  When the property or things to be seized consist of any item or constitute any evidence which tends to show that a criminal offense has been committed, or tends to show that a particular person has committed a criminal offense.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1458)

      NRS 179.045  Issuance and contents; sealing information upon which warrant is based; time for serving warrant.

      1.  A search warrant may issue only on affidavit or affidavits sworn to before the magistrate and establishing the grounds for issuing the warrant or as provided in subsection 2. If the magistrate is satisfied that grounds for the application exist or that there is probable cause to believe that they exist, the magistrate shall issue a warrant identifying the property and naming or describing the person or place to be searched.

      2.  In lieu of the affidavit required by subsection 1, the magistrate may take an oral statement given under oath, which must be recorded in the presence of the magistrate or in the magistrate’s immediate vicinity by a certified court reporter or by electronic means, transcribed, certified by the reporter if the reporter recorded it, and certified by the magistrate. The statement must be filed with the clerk of the court.

      3.  Upon a showing of good cause, the magistrate may order an affidavit or a recording of an oral statement given pursuant to this section to be sealed. Upon a showing of good cause, a court may cause the affidavit or recording to be unsealed.

      4.  After a magistrate has issued a search warrant, whether it is based on an affidavit or an oral statement given under oath, the magistrate may orally authorize a peace officer to sign the name of the magistrate on a duplicate original warrant. A duplicate original search warrant shall be deemed to be a search warrant. It must be returned to the magistrate who authorized the signing of it. The magistrate shall endorse his or her name and enter the date on the warrant when it is returned. Any failure of the magistrate to make such an endorsement and entry does not in itself invalidate the warrant.

      5.  The warrant must be directed to a peace officer in the county where the warrant is to be executed. It must:

      (a) State the grounds or probable cause for its issuance and the names of the persons whose affidavits have been taken in support thereof; or

      (b) Incorporate by reference the affidavit or oral statement upon which it is based.

Ê The warrant must command the officer to search forthwith the person or place named for the property specified.

      6.  The warrant must direct that it be served between the hours of 7 a.m. and 7 p.m., unless the magistrate, upon a showing of good cause therefor, inserts a direction that it be served at any time.

      7.  The warrant must designate the magistrate to whom it is to be returned.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1459; A 1975, 39; 1981, 1652; 1993, 1412; 1997, 741)

      NRS 179.055  Officer may break door to serve warrant after admittance refused; breaking of door or window to liberate officer or person acting in aid of officer; use of reasonable and necessary force.

      1.  The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of the house, or anything therein, to execute the warrant, if, after notice of authority and purpose, the officer is refused admittance.

      2.  The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house for the purpose of liberating a person who, having entered to aid in the execution of the officer’s warrant, is detained therein, or when necessary for the officer’s own liberation.

      3.  All reasonable and necessary force may be used to effect an entry into any building or property or part thereof to execute a search warrant. In the execution of the warrant, the person executing it may reasonably detain and search any person in the place at the time in order to protect himself or herself from attack or to prevent destruction, disposal or concealment of any instruments, articles or things particularly described in the warrant.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1459)

      NRS 179.065  Person charged with felony may be searched.  When a person charged with a felony is supposed to have on his or her person a dangerous weapon, or anything which may be used as evidence of the commission of the offense, the officer making the arrest shall cause the person to be searched, and the weapon or other thing to be retained, subject to the order of the court in which the defendant may be tried.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1459)

      NRS 179.075  Execution and return of warrant with inventory.

      1.  The warrant may be executed and returned only within 10 days after its date.

      2.  The officer taking property under the warrant shall give to the person from whom or from whose premises the property was taken a copy of the warrant and a receipt for the property taken or shall leave the copy and receipt at the place from which the property was taken.

      3.  The return shall be made promptly and shall be accompanied by a written inventory of any property taken. The inventory shall be made in the presence of the applicant for the warrant and the person from whose possession or premises the property was taken, if they are present, or in the presence of at least one credible person other than the applicant for the warrant or the person from whose possession or premises the property was taken, and shall be verified by the officer.

      4.  The magistrate shall upon request deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whom or from whose premises the property was taken and to the applicant for the warrant.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1459)

      NRS 179.085  Motion for return of property and to suppress evidence.

      1.  A person aggrieved by an unlawful search and seizure may move the court having jurisdiction where the property was seized for the return of the property and to suppress for use as evidence anything so obtained on the ground that:

      (a) The property was illegally seized without warrant;

      (b) The warrant is insufficient on its face;

      (c) There was not probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued; or

      (d) The warrant was illegally executed.

Ê The judge shall receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to the decision of the motion.

      2.  If the motion is granted the property shall be restored unless otherwise subject to lawful detention and it shall not be admissible evidence at any hearing or trial.

      3.  The motion to suppress evidence may also be made in the court where the trial is to be had. The motion shall be made before trial or hearing unless opportunity therefor did not exist or the defendant was not aware of the grounds for the motion, but the court in its discretion may entertain the motion at the trial or hearing.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460)

      NRS 179.095  Return of papers to clerk.  The magistrate who has issued a search warrant shall attach to the warrant the duplicate original warrant, if any, and a copy of the return, inventory and all other papers in connection therewith and shall file them with the clerk of the court having jurisdiction where the property was seized.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460; A 1981, 1653)

      NRS 179.105  Retention of property taken on warrant by officer subject to court order; restoration of property to person from whom it was taken; technical irregularities will not quash warrant.  All property or things taken on a warrant must be retained in an officer’s custody, subject to the order of the court to which the officer is required to return the proceedings before the officer, or of any other court in which the offense in respect to which the property or things are taken is triable. If it appears that the property taken is not the same as that described in the warrant, or that there is no probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, the magistrate shall cause it to be restored to the person from whom it was taken. However, no search warrant shall be quashed by any magistrate or judge within this State nor shall any evidence based upon a search warrant be suppressed in any criminal action or proceeding because of mere technical irregularities which do not affect the substantial rights of the accused.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460)

      NRS 179.115  Scope.  NRS 179.015 to 179.115, inclusive, do not modify any other statute regulating search, seizure and the issuance and execution of search warrants in circumstances for which special provision is made.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460)

IDENTIFICATION OF FUNDS

      NRS 179.1152  Identification of name, personal information and funds associated with prepaid or stored value card; contract to assist.

      1.  If a peace officer:

      (a) Has detained a person pursuant to NRS 171.123, has arrested a person pursuant to any statutory provision authorizing or requiring the arrest of a person or is investigating a crime for which a suspect:

             (1) Has not been identified; or

             (2) Has been identified but was not reasonably believed by the peace officer to possess or control a prepaid or stored value card before the peace officer lawfully obtained possession of a prepaid or stored value card;

      (b) Has lawfully obtained possession of a prepaid or stored value card; and

      (c) Has probable cause to believe that the prepaid or stored value card represents the proceeds of a crime or has been used, is being used or is intended for use in the commission of a crime,

Ê the peace officer may use an electronic device, a necessary electronic communications network or any other reasonable means to determine the name, personal information and amount of funds associated with the prepaid or stored value card.

      2.  The Attorney General, the Attorney General’s designee or any state or local law enforcement agency in this State may enter into a contract with any person to assist in carrying out the provisions of this section.

      3.  Before entering into a contract pursuant to subsection 2, the Attorney General, the Attorney General’s designee or a state or local law enforcement agency shall consider the following factors:

      (a) The functional benefits to all law enforcement agencies in this State of maintaining either a single database or a series of interlinked databases relating to possible criminal use of prepaid or stored value cards.

      (b) The overall costs of establishing and maintaining such a database or databases.

      (c) Any other factors that the Attorney General, the Attorney General’s designee or the state or local law enforcement agency believe to be relevant.

      4.  Any contract entered into pursuant to this section:

      (a) May be a sole source contract, not subject to the rules and requirements of open competitive bidding, if the period of the contract does not exceed 5 years; and

      (b) Must indemnify and hold harmless any person who enters into a contract pursuant to this section, and any officers, employees or agents of that person, for claims for actions taken at the direction of a law enforcement agency in this State and within the scope of the contract.

      5.  As used in this section:

      (a) “Prepaid or stored value card” means any instrument or device used to access funds or monetary value represented in digital electronic format, whether or not specially encrypted, and stored or capable of storage on electronic media in such a way as to be retrievable and transferable electronically.

      (b) “Proceeds” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179.1161.

      (Added to NRS by 2009, 2243)

FORFEITURES

      NRS 179.1156  Scope.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.1211 to 179.1235, inclusive, and 207.350 to 207.520, inclusive, the provisions of NRS 179.1156 to 179.121, inclusive, govern the seizure, forfeiture and disposition of all property and proceeds subject to forfeiture.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380; A 1989, 1789; 2007, 205)

      NRS 179.1157  Definitions.  As used in NRS 179.1156 to 179.119, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NRS 179.1158 to 179.11635, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380; A 1989, 1789; 1991, 209)

      NRS 179.1158  “Claimant” defined.  “Claimant” means any person who claims to have:

      1.  Any right, title or interest of record in the property or proceeds subject to forfeiture;

      2.  Any community property interest in the property or proceeds; or

      3.  Had possession of the property or proceeds at the time of the seizure thereof by the plaintiff.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380)

      NRS 179.1159  “Plaintiff” defined.  “Plaintiff” means the law enforcement agency which has commenced a proceeding for forfeiture.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380)

      NRS 179.1161  “Proceeds” defined.  “Proceeds” means any property, or that part of an item of property, derived directly or indirectly from the commission or attempted commission of a crime.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380)

      NRS 179.1162  “Property” defined.  “Property” includes any:

      1.  Real property or interest in real property.

      2.  Fixture or improvement to real property.

      3.  Personal property, whether tangible or intangible, or interest in personal property.

      4.  Conveyance, including any aircraft, vehicle or vessel.

      5.  Money, security or negotiable instrument.

      6.  Proceeds.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380)

      NRS 179.1163  “Protected interest” defined.  “Protected interest” means the enforceable interest of a claimant in property, which interest is shown not to be subject to forfeiture.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380)

      NRS 179.11635  “Willful blindness” defined.  “Willful blindness” means the intentional disregard of objective facts which would lead a reasonable person to conclude that the property was derived from unlawful activity or would be used for an unlawful purpose.

      (Added to NRS by 1991, 209)

      NRS 179.1164  Property subject to seizure and forfeiture; exceptions.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, the following property is subject to seizure and forfeiture in a proceeding for forfeiture:

      (a) Any proceeds attributable to the commission or attempted commission of any felony.

      (b) Any property or proceeds otherwise subject to forfeiture pursuant to NRS 179.121, 200.760, 202.257, 370.419, 453.301 or 501.3857.

      2.  Property may not, to the extent of the interest of any claimant, be declared forfeited by reason of an act or omission shown to have been committed or omitted without the knowledge, consent or willful blindness of the claimant.

      3.  Unless the owner of real property or a mobile home:

      (a) Has given the tenant notice to surrender the premises pursuant to NRS 40.254 within 90 days after the owner receives notice of a conviction pursuant to subsection 2 of NRS 453.305; or

      (b) Shows the court that the owner had good cause not to evict the tenant summarily pursuant to NRS 40.254,

Ê the owner of real property or a mobile home used or intended for use by a tenant to facilitate any violation of the provisions of NRS 453.011 to 453.552, inclusive, except NRS 453.336, is disputably presumed to have known of and consented to that use if the notices required by NRS 453.305 have been given in connection with another such violation relating to the property or mobile home. The holder of a lien or encumbrance on the property or mobile home is disputably presumed to have acquired an interest in the property for fair value and without knowledge or consent to such use, regardless of when the act giving rise to the forfeiture occurred.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1380; A 1989, 1235; 1991, 209, 2286, 2288; 1995, 2534; 2001, 1066; 2003, 562; 2005, 1198)

      NRS 179.1165  Seizure of property: Requirement of process.

      1.  Except as provided in subsection 2, property that is subject to forfeiture may only be seized by a law enforcement agency upon process issued by a magistrate having jurisdiction over the property.

      2.  A seizure of property may be made by a law enforcement agency without process if:

      (a) The seizure is incident to:

             (1) An arrest;

             (2) A search pursuant to a search warrant; or

             (3) An inspection pursuant to a warrant for an administrative inspection;

      (b) The property is the subject of a final judgment in a proceeding for forfeiture;

      (c) The law enforcement agency has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to health or safety; or

      (d) The law enforcement agency has probable cause to believe that the property is subject to forfeiture.

      (Added to NRS by 1985, 1466; A 1987, 1382)

      NRS 179.1169  Title in property; transfer.

      1.  All right, title and interest in property subject to forfeiture vests in the plaintiff:

      (a) In the case of property used or intended for use to facilitate the commission or attempted commission of any felony, when the property is so used or intended for such use.

      (b) In the case of property otherwise subject to forfeiture, when the event giving rise to the forfeiture occurs.

      (c) In the case of proceeds, when they become proceeds.

      2.  Any transfer of property which occurs after title to the property has become vested in the plaintiff, and before the termination of the proceeding for forfeiture, is void as against the plaintiff, unless the person to whom the transfer is made is a good faith purchaser for value. If such a transfer is made, the purchaser must, in the proceeding for forfeiture, establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the purchaser has:

      (a) An interest of record in the property;

      (b) Given fair value for the interest; and

      (c) Acquired the interest without notice of the proceeding or the facts giving rise to the proceeding.

Ê If the purchaser acquires the interest after the seizure of the property by the plaintiff, it is conclusively presumed that the interest has been acquired with notice of the proceeding.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1381)

      NRS 179.1171  Proceedings for forfeiture: Rules of practice; complaint; service of summons and complaint; answer; parties.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.1156 to 179.119, inclusive, the Nevada Rules of Civil Procedure are applicable to and constitute the rules of practice in a proceeding for forfeiture pursuant to those sections.

      2.  A proceeding for forfeiture is commenced by filing a complaint for forfeiture. If the property has been seized without process, the plaintiff shall promptly file the complaint for forfeiture. The property is subject to an action to claim its delivery only if the plaintiff does not file the complaint for forfeiture within 60 days after the property is seized. If the complaint for forfeiture is filed following the commencement of an action claiming delivery, the complaint must be treated as a counterclaim.

      3.  A proceeding for forfeiture is in rem. The complaint for forfeiture must be filed in the district court for the county in which the property which is the subject of the proceeding is located.

      4.  The plaintiff shall cause service of the summons and complaint to be made upon each claimant whose identity is known to the plaintiff or who can be identified through the exercise of reasonable diligence. If real property or any interest in real property is affected by the proceeding, the plaintiff shall file notice of the proceeding in the manner provided in NRS 14.010.

      5.  Each claimant served with the summons and complaint who desires to contest the forfeiture shall, within 20 days after the service, serve and file a verified answer to the complaint. The claimant shall admit or deny the averments of the complaint and shall, in short and plain terms, describe the interest which the claimant asserts in the property. Concurrently with the answer, the claimant shall serve answers or objections to any written interrogatories served with the summons and complaint.

      6.  No person, other than the plaintiff and any claimant, is a proper party in the proceeding.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1381)

      NRS 179.1173  Proceedings for forfeiture: Priority over other civil matters; motion to stay; standard of proof; conviction of claimant not required; confidentiality of informants; return of property to claimant.

      1.  The district court shall proceed as soon as practicable to a trial and determination of the matter. A proceeding for forfeiture is entitled to priority over other civil actions which are not otherwise entitled to priority.

      2.  At a proceeding for forfeiture, the plaintiff or claimant may file a motion for an order staying the proceeding and the court shall grant that motion if a criminal action which is the basis of the proceeding is pending trial. The court shall, upon a motion made by the plaintiff, lift the stay upon a satisfactory showing that the claimant is a fugitive.

      3.  The plaintiff in a proceeding for forfeiture must establish proof by clear and convincing evidence that the property is subject to forfeiture.

      4.  In a proceeding for forfeiture, the rule of law that forfeitures are not favored does not apply.

      5.  The plaintiff is not required to plead or prove that a claimant has been charged with or convicted of any criminal offense. If proof of such a conviction is made, and it is shown that the judgment of conviction has become final, the proof is, as against any claimant, conclusive evidence of all facts necessary to sustain the conviction.

      6.  The plaintiff has an absolute privilege to refuse to disclose the identity of any person, other than a witness, who has furnished to a law enforcement officer information purporting to reveal the commission of a crime. The privilege may be claimed by an appropriate representative of the plaintiff.

      7.  If the court determines that the property is not subject to forfeiture, the court shall order the property and any interest accrued pursuant to subsection 2 of NRS 179.1175 returned to the claimant found to be entitled to the property. If the court determines that the property is subject to forfeiture, the court shall so decree. The property, including any interest accrued pursuant to subsection 2 of NRS 179.1175, must be forfeited to the plaintiff, subject to the right of any claimant who establishes a protected interest. Any such claimant must, upon the sale or retention of the property, be compensated for the claimant’s interest in the manner provided in NRS 179.118.

      (Added to NRS by 1987, 1382; A 2001, 874)

      NRS 179.1175  Disposition of property after seizure and forfeiture.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, after property has been seized the agency which seized the property may:

      (a) Place the property under seal;

      (b) Remove the property to a place designated by the agency for the storage of that type of property; or

      (c) Remove the property to an appropriate place for disposition in a manner authorized by the court.

      2.  If an agency seizes currency, unless otherwise ordered by the court, the agency shall deposit the currency in an interest-bearing account maintained for the purpose of holding currency seized by the agency.

      3.  When a court declares property to be forfeited, the plaintiff may:

      (a) Retain it for official use;

      (b) Sell any of it which is neither required by law to be destroyed nor harmful to the public; or

      (c) Remove it for disposition in accordance with the applicable provisions of NRS.

      (Added to NRS by 1985, 1467; A 1987, 1383; 2001, 875)

      NRS 179.118  Distribution of proceeds from forfeited property.

      1.  The proceeds from any sale or retention of property declared to be forfeited and any interest accrued pursuant to subsection 2 of NRS 179.1175 must be applied, first, to the satisfaction of any protected interest established by a claimant in the proceeding, then to the proper expenses of the proceeding for forfeiture and resulting sale, including the expense of effecting the seizure, the expense of maintaining custody, the expense of advertising and the costs of the suit.

      2.  Any balance remaining after the distribution required by subsection 1 must be deposited as follows:

      (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, if the plaintiff seized the property, in the special account established pursuant to NRS 179.1187 by the governing body that controls the plaintiff.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, if the plaintiff is a metropolitan police department, in the special account established by the Metropolitan Police Committee on Fiscal Affairs pursuant to NRS 179.1187.

      (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, if more than one agency was substantially involved in the seizure, in an equitable manner to be directed by the court hearing the proceeding for forfeiture.

      (d) If the property was seized pursuant to NRS 200.760, in the State Treasury for credit to the Fund for the Compensation of Victims of Crime to be used for the counseling and the medical treatment of victims of crimes committed in violation of NRS 200.366, 200.710 to 200.730, inclusive, or 201.230.

      (e) If the property was seized as the result of a violation of NRS 202.300, in the general fund of the county in which the complaint for forfeiture was filed, to be used to support programs of counseling of persons ordered by the court to attend counseling pursuant to NRS 62E.290.

      (f) If the property was forfeited pursuant to NRS 201.351, with the county treasurer to be distributed in accordance with the provisions of subsection 4 of NRS 201.351.

      (Added to NRS by 1985, 1467; A 1987, 1383; 1989, 1789; 1995, 1150; 1997, 1599; 2001, 875; 2003, 1120; 2009, 575)

      NRS 179.1185  Issuance of certificate of title for forfeited vehicle or other conveyance.  If a vehicle or other conveyance is forfeited of a kind which is subject to the provisions of title 43 of NRS governing certificates of title, the agency charged by law with responsibility for issuing certificates of title for conveyances of the kind shall issue a certificate of title to:

      1.  The governing body or the agency to whom the title was awarded by the court if the conveyance is retained for official use; or

      2.  The purchaser if the conveyance is sold by the governing body or the plaintiff.

      (Added to NRS by 1985, 1467; A 1987, 1384; 2003, 478)

      NRS 179.1187  Establishment of account for proceeds from forfeited property; restrictions on use of money in account; distribution of certain amount to school district; duties of school district and chief administrative officer of law enforcement agency.

      1.  The governing body controlling each law enforcement agency that receives proceeds from the sale of forfeited property shall establish with the State Treasurer, county treasurer, city treasurer or town treasurer, as custodian, a special account, known as the “................. Forfeiture Account.” The account is a separate and continuing account and no money in it reverts to the State General Fund or the general fund of the county, city or town at any time. For the purposes of this section, the governing body controlling a metropolitan police department is the Metropolitan Police Committee on Fiscal Affairs.

      2.  The money in the account may be used for any lawful purpose deemed appropriate by the chief administrative officer of the law enforcement agency, except that:

      (a) The money must not be used to pay the ordinary operating expenses of the agency.

      (b) Money derived from the forfeiture of any property described in NRS 453.301 must be used to enforce the provisions of chapter 453 of NRS.

      (c) Money derived from the forfeiture of any property described in NRS 501.3857 must be used to enforce the provisions of title 45 of NRS.

      (d) Seventy percent of the amount of money in excess of $100,000 remaining in the account at the end of each fiscal year, as determined based upon the accounting standards of the governing body controlling the law enforcement agency that are in place on March 1, 2001, must be distributed to the school district in the judicial district. If the judicial district serves more than one county, the money must be distributed to the school district in the county from which the property was seized.

      3.  Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection 2, money in the account derived from the forfeiture of any property described in NRS 453.301 may be used to pay for the operating expenses of a joint task force on narcotics otherwise funded by a federal, state or private grant or donation. As used in this subsection, “joint task force on narcotics” means a task force on narcotics operated by the Department of Public Safety in conjunction with other local or federal law enforcement agencies.

      4.  A school district that receives money pursuant to paragraph (d) of subsection 2 shall deposit such money into a separate account. The interest and income earned on the money in the account, after deducting any applicable charges, must be credited to the account. The money in the account must be used to purchase books and computer hardware and software for the use of the students in that school district.

      5.  The chief administrative officer of a law enforcement agency that distributes money to a school district pursuant to paragraph (d) of subsection 2 shall submit a report to the Director of the Legislative Counsel Bureau before January 1 of each odd-numbered year. The report must contain the amount of money distributed to each school district pursuant to paragraph (d) of subsection 2 in the preceding biennium.

      (Added to NRS by 1989, 1789; A 1991, 2287; 2001, 876; 2003, 2528)

      NRS 179.119  Reports by law enforcement agencies that receive forfeited property or related proceeds; inclusion of such anticipated revenue in budget prohibited.

      1.  Any law enforcement agency that receives forfeited property or the proceeds of a sale of such property pursuant to the provisions contained in NRS 179.1156 to 179.119, inclusive, shall:

      (a) File a quarterly report of the approximate value of the property and the amount of the proceeds with the entity that controls the budget of the agency; and

      (b) Provide the entity that controls the budget of the agency with a quarterly accounting of the receipt and use of the proceeds.

      2.  Revenue from forfeitures must not be considered in the preparation of the budget of a law enforcement agency except as money to match money from the Federal Government.

      (Added to NRS by 1985, 1468; A 1987, 1384; 1989, 1790; 2003, 2529)

      NRS 179.121  Forfeiture of personal property and conveyances used in commission of crime.

      1.  All personal property, including, without limitation, any tool, substance, weapon, machine, computer, money or security, which is used as an instrumentality in any of the following crimes is subject to forfeiture:

      (a) The commission of or attempted commission of the crime of murder, robbery, kidnapping, burglary, invasion of the home, grand larceny or theft if it is punishable as a felony;

      (b) The commission of or attempted commission of any felony with the intent to commit, cause, aid, further or conceal an act of terrorism;

      (c) A violation of NRS 202.445 or 202.446;

      (d) The commission of any crime by a criminal gang, as defined in NRS 213.1263; or

      (e) A violation of NRS 200.463 to 200.468, inclusive, 201.300, 201.320, 202.265, 202.287, 205.473 to 205.513, inclusive, 205.610 to 205.810, inclusive, 370.380, 370.382, 370.395, 370.405, 465.070 to 465.085, inclusive, 630.400, 630A.600, 631.400, 632.285, 632.291, 632.315, 633.741, 634.227, 634A.230, 635.167, 636.145, 637.090, 637A.352, 637B.290, 639.100, 639.2813, 640.169, 640A.230, 644.190 or 654.200.

      2.  Except as otherwise provided for conveyances forfeitable pursuant to NRS 453.301 or 501.3857, all conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles or vessels, which are used or intended for use during the commission of a felony or a violation of NRS 202.287, 202.300 or 465.070 to 465.085, inclusive, are subject to forfeiture except that:

      (a) A conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier is not subject to forfeiture under this section unless it appears that the owner or other person in charge of the conveyance is a consenting party or privy to the felony or violation;

      (b) A conveyance is not subject to forfeiture under this section by reason of any act or omission established by the owner thereof to have been committed or omitted without the owner’s knowledge, consent or willful blindness;

      (c) A conveyance is not subject to forfeiture for a violation of NRS 202.300 if the firearm used in the violation of that section was not loaded at the time of the violation; and

      (d) A forfeiture of a conveyance encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party if the secured party neither had knowledge of nor consented to the felony. If a conveyance is forfeited, the appropriate law enforcement agency may pay the existing balance and retain the conveyance for official use.

      3.  For the purposes of this section, a firearm is loaded if:

      (a) There is a cartridge in the chamber of the firearm;

      (b) There is a cartridge in the cylinder of the firearm, if the firearm is a revolver; or

      (c) There is a cartridge in the magazine and the magazine is in the firearm or there is a cartridge in the chamber, if the firearm is a semiautomatic firearm.

      4.  As used in this section, “act of terrorism” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 202.4415.

      (Added to NRS by 1983, 1135; A 1985, 638, 1239; 1989, 656, 1187, 1188, 1241, 1242, 1453; 1991, 210, 2287, 2288; 1995, 1150, 1424; 1997, 639; 1999, 2711; 2003, 2952; 2005, 90, 1199; 2007, 1269; 2009, 575; 2013, 1857, 2248, 2420)

FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY RELATING TO TECHNOLOGICAL CRIMES

      NRS 179.1211  Definitions.  As used in NRS 179.1211 to 179.1235, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NRS 179.1213, 179.1215 and 179.1217 have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 201)

      NRS 179.1213  “Proceeds” defined.  “Proceeds” means any property, or that part of an item of property, derived directly or indirectly from a technological crime.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 201)

      NRS 179.1215  “Property” defined.  “Property” includes, without limitation, any:

      1.  Real property or interest in real property.

      2.  Fixture or improvement to real property.

      3.  Personal property, whether tangible or intangible, or interest in personal property.

      4.  Conveyance, including, without limitation, any aircraft, vehicle or vessel.

      5.  Money, security or negotiable instrument.

      6.  Proceeds.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 201)

      NRS 179.1217  “Technological crime” defined.  “Technological crime” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 205A.030.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 201)

      NRS 179.1219  Property subject to forfeiture; substitution for unreachable property.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.1221, if an indictment or information filed in a criminal proceeding alleges that property was derived from, realized through, or used or intended for use in the course of a technological crime which is punishable as a felony and the extent of that property:

      (a) The jury; or

      (b) If the trial is without a jury, the court,

Ê shall, upon a conviction, determine at a separate hearing the extent of the property to be forfeited. If the indictment or information does not include such an allegation, the property is not subject to criminal forfeiture pursuant to this section.

      2.  If, at a hearing to determine the extent of the property to be forfeited pursuant to subsection 1, the jury or, if the hearing is without a jury, the court determines by a preponderance of the evidence that the property:

      (a) Was used or intended to be used in, or was used or intended to be used to facilitate, a technological crime; or

      (b) Was acquired during a technological crime or within a reasonable time after the technological crime and there was no likely source of such property other than the technological crime,

Ê the court shall order the forfeiture of the property.

      3.  The following property is subject to criminal forfeiture pursuant to subsection 1:

      (a) Any proceeds attributable to a technological crime;

      (b) Any property acquired directly or indirectly from a technological crime; and

      (c) Any property used or intended to be used in, or used or intended to be used to facilitate, a technological crime.

      4.  If property which is ordered to be criminally forfeited pursuant to subsection 1:

      (a) Cannot be located;

      (b) Has been sold to a purchaser in good faith for value;

      (c) Has been placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court;

      (d) Has been substantially diminished in value by the conduct of the defendant;

      (e) Has been commingled with other property which cannot be divided without difficulty or undue injury to innocent persons; or

      (f) Is otherwise unreachable without undue injury to innocent persons,

Ê the court shall order the forfeiture of other property of the defendant up to the value of the property that is unreachable.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 201)

      NRS 179.1221  Forfeiture as part of plea agreement.

      1.  A defendant who agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a technological crime may agree to the forfeiture of any property as part of the agreement.

      2.  If the court accepts the plea of guilty, the court shall order the forfeiture of the property that the defendant agreed to forfeit pursuant to subsection 1.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 202)

      NRS 179.1223  Temporary restraining order to preserve property.

      1.  The prosecuting attorney may apply for, and a court may issue without notice or hearing, a temporary restraining order to preserve property which would be subject to criminal forfeiture pursuant to NRS 179.1219 if:

      (a) An indictment or information alleging a technological crime has been filed in a criminal proceeding and the extent of criminally forfeitable property is included therein or the court believes there is probable cause for such an inclusion;

      (b) The property is in the possession or control of the party against whom the order will be entered; and

      (c) The court determines that the nature of the property is such that it can be concealed, disposed of or placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court before a hearing on the matter.

      2.  A temporary restraining order which is issued without notice may be issued for not more than 10 days and may be extended only for good cause or by consent. The court shall provide notice and hold a hearing on the matter before the order expires.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 202)

      NRS 179.1225  Orders to secure property.

      1.  After an information or indictment alleging a technological crime is filed in a criminal proceeding, the prosecuting attorney may request the court to:

      (a) Enter a restraining order or injunction;

      (b) Require the execution of a satisfactory bond;

      (c) Appoint a receiver; or

      (d) Take any other necessary action,

Ê to secure property which is subject to criminal forfeiture.

      2.  The court shall, after a hearing for which notice was given to any person whose rights in the property proposed for forfeiture would be affected, order such an action if the prosecuting attorney shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the action is necessary to preserve the defendant’s property which is subject to criminal forfeiture.

      3.  If no indictment or information alleging a technological crime has been filed, the court may, after such a hearing and upon a showing of the prosecuting attorney that:

      (a) There is probable cause to believe that the property for which the order is sought would be subject to criminal forfeiture; and

      (b) The requested order would not result in substantial and irreparable harm or injury to the party against whom the order is to be entered that outweighs the need to secure the property for the potential criminal forfeiture,

Ê order an action to secure the property. Such an order may not be effective for more than 90 days unless it is extended for good cause or an indictment or information alleging a technological crime is filed and the extent of the criminally forfeitable property is listed therein.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 202)

      NRS 179.1227  Order of forfeiture; order to protect interests of State.

      1.  Upon a verdict of guilty or a plea of guilty to a technological crime, the court may order the forfeiture of the appropriate property.

      2.  Upon entry of such an order, the court may:

      (a) Enter a restraining order or injunction;

      (b) Require the execution of a satisfactory bond;

      (c) Appoint a receiver; or

      (d) Take any other necessary action,

Ê to protect the interests of the State.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 203)

      NRS 179.1229  Property subject to civil forfeiture; required proof; where action must be instituted.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, all property used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from or gained through a technological crime is subject to civil forfeiture to the State.

      2.  Upon a showing by the owner of the property of the requisite facts, the following is not subject to forfeiture under this section:

      (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), property used without the knowledge or consent of its owner; and

      (b) A means of transportation used by a person in the transaction of business as a common carrier unless it appears the owner or person in charge of the common carrier consented to or had knowledge of the technological crime.

      3.  The State is not required to plead or prove that a person has been charged with or convicted of any technological crime. If proof of such conviction is made, and it is shown that the judgment of conviction has become final, the proof against any person is conclusive evidence of all facts necessary to sustain the conviction.

      4.  Any civil action or proceeding under this section must be instituted in the district court of the State in the county in which the prospective defendant resides or has committed any act which subjects the prospective defendant to criminal or civil liability pursuant to the provisions of NRS 179.1211 to 179.1235, inclusive.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 203)

      NRS 179.1231  Seizure of property before forfeiture and final disposition; institution of proceedings; intercession by district attorney or Attorney General; interlocutory actions by court; order of forfeiture.

      1.  Property subject to forfeiture under NRS 179.1219 or 179.1229 may be seized by a law enforcement agency upon process issued by a court. Before an order of civil forfeiture is issued without legal process, notice of the claim for forfeiture of real property may be given in the manner provided in NRS 14.010 and 14.015. A seizure of personal property may be made without legal process if the seizure is incident to:

      (a) A lawful arrest or search; or

      (b) An inspection under an administrative warrant.

      2.  Property seized or made the subject of notice under this section is deemed to be in the custody of the agency, subject only to orders of the court which has jurisdiction over the proceedings for forfeiture. An agency which has seized such property without process shall begin proceedings for forfeiture promptly. Such an action takes precedence over other civil proceedings. The seized property is subject to an action to claim the delivery of the property if the agency does not file the complaint for forfeiture within 60 days after the property is seized. If a complaint for forfeiture is filed after an affidavit claiming delivery, the complaint must be treated as a counterclaim.

      3.  When property is seized pursuant to this section, pending forfeiture and final disposition, the law enforcement agency may:

      (a) Place the property under seal.

      (b) Remove the property to a place designated by the court.

      (c) Require another agency authorized by law to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location.

      4.  The district attorney or the Attorney General may institute civil proceedings under this section for the forfeiture of property subject to forfeiture pursuant to NRS 179.1229. The district attorney and the Attorney General shall determine by agreement between themselves which of them will institute such a proceeding in a particular case. If a district attorney or the Attorney General has not instituted such a proceeding or has not pursued one which was instituted in accordance with the agreement, the other may intercede after giving the prosecutor designated in the agreement 30 days’ written notice of the intention to do so. In any action so brought, the district court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination in an action brought pursuant to this section, the district court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions or restraining orders, or take such actions, including, without limitation, the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court deems proper in connection with any property or interest subject to forfeiture.

      5.  Upon a finding of civil liability under this section, the court may order the forfeiture of the appropriate property.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 203; A 2013, 823)

      NRS 179.1233  Sale of forfeited property; use of proceeds; deposit of balance of proceeds in Account for the Technological Crime Advisory Board; payment of certain encumbrances.

      1.  The State, county or city shall sell any property forfeited pursuant to NRS 179.1219 or 179.1229 as soon as commercially feasible. Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, the proceeds from such a sale must be used first for payment of all proper expenses of any proceedings for the forfeiture and sale, including, without limitation, any expenses for the seizure and maintenance of the property, advertising and court costs. The balance of the proceeds, if any, must be deposited in the Account for the Technological Crime Advisory Board created pursuant to NRS 205A.090.

      2.  If the property forfeited is encumbered by a bona fide security interest and the secured party shows that the secured party did not consent or have knowledge of the violation causing the forfeiture, the State, county or city shall pay the existing balance or return the property to the secured party.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 204)

      NRS 179.1235  Limitation of actions.  A criminal action or proceeding pursuant to NRS 179.1219 may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the technological crime occurs. Except as otherwise provided in NRS 217.007, a civil action or proceeding pursuant to NRS 179.1229 may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the technological crime occurs. If a criminal prosecution, civil action or other proceeding is brought to punish, prevent or restrain a technological crime, the running of the period of limitations prescribed by this section with respect to any cause of action arising under NRS 179.1229, which is based in whole or in part upon any matter complained of in the prosecution or proceeding, is suspended during the pendency of the prosecution or proceeding and for 2 years following termination of the prosecution or proceeding.

      (Added to NRS by 2007, 204)

DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY STOLEN OR EMBEZZLED

      NRS 179.125  Stolen or embezzled property held by peace officer subject to magistrate’s order.  Except as provided in NRS 52.385, when property, alleged to have been stolen or embezzled, shall come into the custody of a peace officer, the peace officer shall hold the same subject to the order of the magistrate authorized by NRS 179.135 to direct the disposal thereof.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460; A 1975, 1184)

      NRS 179.135  Order for delivery to owner; payment of expenses.  On satisfactory proof of the title of the owner of the property, the magistrate to whom the information is laid, or who shall examine the charge against the person accused of stealing or embezzling the property, may order it to be delivered to the owner, on the owner’s paying the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in its preservation, to be certified by the magistrate. The order shall entitle the owner to demand and receive the property.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1460)

      NRS 179.145  Magistrate to deliver property to owner when it comes into magistrate’s custody; proof of title and payment of expenses.  If the property stolen or embezzled come into the custody of the magistrate, it shall be delivered to the owner on satisfactory proof of title, and on the owner’s paying the necessary expenses incurred in its preservation, to be certified by the magistrate.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461)

      NRS 179.155  Court may order return of property to owner.  If the property stolen or embezzled has not been delivered to the owner, the court before which a conviction is had for stealing or embezzling it may, on proof of title, order it to be restored to the owner.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461)

      NRS 179.165  Notice must be provided by law enforcement agency to owner, pawnbroker and other interested persons; contents of notice; sale or disposal of unclaimed property by county treasurer; records.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsections 2 and 3, a law enforcement agency which has custody of property that has been stolen or embezzled shall, if the agency knows or can reasonably discover the name and address of the owner or the person entitled to possession of the property, notify the owner or the person entitled to possession of the property by letter of the location of the property and the method by which the owner or the person entitled to possession of the property may claim it.

      2.  If the property that has been stolen or embezzled is a firearm, the law enforcement agency shall notify only the owner of the firearm of the location of the property and the method by which the owner may claim it.

      3.  If the property that has been stolen or embezzled was obtained from a pawnbroker pursuant to NRS 646.047, the law enforcement agency shall, in addition to notifying the persons described in subsection 1 or 2, as appropriate, notify the pawnbroker from whom it was obtained.

      4.  The notice must be mailed by certified or registered mail:

      (a) Upon the conviction of the person who committed the offense;

      (b) Upon the decision of the police or district attorney not to pursue or prosecute the case; or

      (c) When the case is otherwise terminated.

      5.  If the property stolen or embezzled is not claimed by the owner or the person entitled to possession of the property before the expiration of 6 months after the date the notice is mailed or, if no notice is required, after the date notice would have been sent if it were required, the magistrate or other officer having it in custody shall, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, on payment of the necessary expenses incurred for its preservation, deliver it to the county treasurer, who shall dispose of the property as provided in subsection 6. If a metropolitan police department which is organized pursuant to chapter 280 of NRS has custody of the property, the sheriff of the department may deliver it to the county treasurer and accept the net proceeds, if any, from the disposition of the property pursuant to subsection 6 in lieu of the payment of expenses incurred for the property’s preservation.

      6.  Upon receiving stolen or embezzled property pursuant to this section, the county treasurer shall petition the district court for an order authorizing the county treasurer to:

      (a) Conduct an auction for the disposal of salable property;

      (b) Dispose of property not deemed salable by donations to charitable organizations or by destruction;

      (c) Destroy property the possession of which is deemed illegal or dangerous; or

      (d) Dispose of property not purchased at an auction by donations to charitable organizations or by destruction.

      7.  Records of the property disposed of by sale, destruction or donation and an accounting of the cash received by the county treasurer from the sales must be filed with the county clerk.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461; A 1973, 565; 1989, 382; 1999, 753)

CRIMINAL EXTRADITION (UNIFORM ACT)

      NRS 179.177  Short title.  NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, may be cited as the Uniform Criminal Extradition Act.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1098)

      NRS 179.179  Definitions.  As used in NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, unless the context requires otherwise:

      1.  “Executive authority” means the governor, and any person performing the functions of governor in a state other than this state.

      2.  “Governor” means any person performing the functions of Governor by authority of the law of this state.

      3.  “State,” when referring to a state other than this state, means any other state or territory, organized or unorganized, of the United States of America.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1098)

      NRS 179.181  Fugitives from justice; duty of Governor.  Subject to the provisions of NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, the provisions of the Constitution of the United States controlling, and any and all Acts of Congress enacted in pursuance thereof, it is the duty of the Governor of this state to have arrested and delivered up to the executive authority of any other state of the United States any person charged in that state with treason, felony or other crime, who has fled from justice and is found in this state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1098)

      NRS 179.183  Form of demand.  No demand for the extradition of a person charged with crime in another state shall be recognized by the Governor unless it is:

      1.  In writing alleging, except in cases arising under NRS 179.189, that the accused was present in the demanding state at the time of the commission of the alleged crime, and that thereafter the accused fled from the state; and

      2.  Accompanied by a copy of an indictment found or by information supported by affidavit in the state having jurisdiction of the crime, or by a copy of an affidavit made before a magistrate there, together with a copy of any warrant which was issued thereupon; or

      3.  Accompanied by a copy of a judgment of conviction or of a sentence imposed in execution thereof, together with a statement by the executive authority of the demanding state that the person claimed has escaped from confinement or has broken the terms of the person’s bail, probation or parole.

Ê The indictment, information or affidavit made before the magistrate must substantially charge the person demanded with having committed a crime under the law of that state; and the copy of indictment, information, affidavit, judgment of conviction or sentence must be authenticated by the executive authority making the demand.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1098)

      NRS 179.185  Governor may investigate case.  When a demand is made upon the Governor of this state by the executive authority of another state for the surrender of a person so charged with crime, the Governor may call upon the Attorney General or any prosecuting officer in this state to investigate or assist in investigating the demand, and to report to the Governor the situation and circumstances of the person so demanded, and whether the person ought to be surrendered.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1099)

      NRS 179.187  Extradition of persons imprisoned or awaiting trial in another state or who have left demanding state under compulsion.

      1.  When it is desired to have returned to this state a person charged in this state with a crime, and such person is imprisoned or is held under criminal proceedings then pending against the person in another state, the Governor of this state may agree with the executive authority of such other state for the extradition of such person before the conclusion of such proceedings or the person’s term of sentence in such other state, upon condition that such person be returned to such other state at the expense of this state as soon as the prosecution in this state is terminated.

      2.  The Governor of this state may also surrender on demand of the executive authority of any other state any person in this state who is charged in the manner provided in NRS 179.223 with having violated the laws of the state whose executive authority is making the demand, even though such person left the demanding state involuntarily.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1099)

      NRS 179.189  Extradition of persons not present in demanding state at time of commission of crime.  The Governor of this state may also surrender, on demand of the executive authority of any other state, any person in this state charged in such other state in the manner provided in NRS 179.183 with committing an act in this state, or in a third state, intentionally resulting in a crime in the state whose executive authority is making the demand, and the provisions of NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, not otherwise inconsistent shall apply to such cases, even though the accused was not in that state at the time of the commission of the crime, and has not fled therefrom.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1099)

      NRS 179.191  Governor’s warrant of arrest.

      1.  If the Governor decides that the demand should be complied with, the Governor shall sign a warrant of arrest, which must be sealed with the state seal, and be directed to any peace officer or other person whom the Governor may think fit to entrust with the execution thereof. The warrant must substantially recite the facts necessary to the validity of its issuance.

      2.  A telegraphic copy or an abstract of the Governor’s warrant may be sent by telegraph, teletype or any other electronic device to the person entrusted with the execution of the warrant. The copy or abstract is as effectual as the original warrant issued by the Governor.

      3.  The person who causes a telegraphic copy or abstract of the Governor’s warrant to be sent must certify as correct, and file in the telegraphic office from which the copy or abstract is sent, a copy of the warrant, and must return the original with a statement of the person’s actions under the warrant.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1099; A 1987, 91)

      NRS 179.193  Manner and place of execution.  Such warrant shall authorize the peace officer or other person to whom directed to:

      1.  Arrest the accused at any time and any place where the accused may be found within the State;

      2.  Command the aid of all peace officers or other persons in the execution of the warrant; and

      3.  Deliver the accused, subject to the provisions of NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, to the duly authorized agent of the demanding state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1099)

      NRS 179.195  Authority of arresting officer.  Every such peace officer or other person empowered to make the arrest shall have the same authority, in arresting the accused, to command assistance therein as peace officers have by law in the execution of any criminal process directed to them, with like penalties against those who refuse their assistance.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1100)

      NRS 179.197  Rights of accused person; application for writ of habeas corpus.

      1.  No person arrested upon such warrant shall be delivered over to the agent whom the executive authority demanding the person has appointed to receive the person unless the person is first taken forthwith before a judge of a court of record in this state, who shall inform the person of the demand made for surrender and of the crime with which the person is charged, and that the person has the right to demand and procure legal counsel.

      2.  If the prisoner or the prisoner’s counsel state that the prisoner or they desire to test the legality of the arrest, the judge of such court of record shall fix a reasonable time to be allowed within which to apply to the district court for a writ of habeas corpus.

      3.  When such writ is applied for, notice thereof, and of the time and place of hearing thereon, shall be given to the prosecuting officer of the county in which the arrest is made and in which the accused is in custody, and to the agent of the demanding state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1100; A 1983, 539)

      NRS 179.199  Penalty for noncompliance with NRS 179.197.  Any officer who delivers to the agent for extradition of the demanding state a person in the officer’s custody under the Governor’s warrant, in willful disobedience to NRS 179.197, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1100)

      NRS 179.201  Confinement in jail or detention facility when necessary.

      1.  The officer or persons executing the Governor’s warrant of arrest, or the agent of the demanding state to whom the prisoner may have been delivered may, when necessary, confine the prisoner in the jail or detention facility of any county or city through which he or she may pass, and the keeper of the jail or detention facility shall receive and safely keep the prisoner until the officer or person having charge of the prisoner is ready to proceed on his or her route, such officer or person being chargeable with the expense of keeping.

      2.  The officer or agent of a demanding state to whom a prisoner may have been delivered following extradition proceedings in another state, or to whom a prisoner may have been delivered after waiving extradition in another state, and who is passing through this state with a prisoner for the purpose of immediately returning the prisoner to the demanding state may, when necessary, confine the prisoner in the jail or detention facility of any county or city through which he or she may pass, and the keeper of the jail or detention facility shall receive and safely keep the prisoner until the officer or agent having charge of the prisoner is ready to proceed on his or her route, such officer or agent being chargeable with the expense of keeping. The officer or agent shall produce and show to the keeper of the jail or detention facility satisfactory written evidence of the fact that the officer or agent is actually transporting a prisoner to the demanding state after a requisition by the executive authority of the demanding state. The prisoner is not entitled to demand a new requisition while in this state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1100; A 1989, 1178)

      NRS 179.203  Arrest before requisition.

      1.  Whenever any person within this state is charged on the oath of any credible person before any judge or magistrate of this state with the commission of any crime in any other state and, except in cases arising under NRS 179.189, with having fled from justice, or with having been convicted of a crime in that state and having escaped from confinement, or having broken the terms of the person’s bail, probation or parole; or

      2.  Whenever complaint has been made before any judge or magistrate in this state setting forth on the affidavit of any credible person in another state that a crime has been committed in such other state and that the accused has been charged in such state with the commission of the crime, and, except in cases arising under NRS 179.189, has fled from justice, or with having been convicted of a crime in that state and having escaped from confinement, or having broken the terms of the person’s bail, probation or parole and is believed to be in this state,

Ê the judge or magistrate shall issue a warrant directed to any peace officer commanding the peace officer to apprehend the person named therein, wherever the person may be found in this state, and to bring the person before the same or any other judge, magistrate or court who or which may be available in or convenient of access to the place where the arrest may be made, to answer the charge or complaint and affidavit. A certified copy of the sworn charge or complaint and affidavit upon which the warrant is issued shall be attached to the warrant.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1100)

      NRS 179.205  Arrest without warrant.  The arrest of a person may be lawfully made also by any peace officer or a private person, without a warrant upon reasonable information that the accused stands charged in the courts of a state with a crime punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year; but when so arrested the accused must be taken before a judge or magistrate with all practicable speed and complaint must be made against the person under oath setting forth the ground for the arrest as in NRS 179.203. Thereafter the answer shall be heard as if the person had been arrested on a warrant.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1101)

      NRS 179.207  Commitment to await requisition; bail.  If from the examination before the judge or magistrate it appears that the person held is the person charged with having committed the crime alleged and, except in cases arising under NRS 179.189, that the person has fled from justice, the judge or magistrate must, by a warrant reciting the accusation, commit the person to the county jail for such a time, not exceeding 30 days and specified in the warrant, as will enable the arrest of the accused to be made under a warrant of the Governor on a requisition of the executive authority of the state having jurisdiction of the offense, unless the accused gives bail as provided in NRS 179.209, or until the accused is legally discharged.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1101; A 1967, 1389)

      NRS 179.209  Bail: In what cases; conditions of bond.  Unless the offense with which the prisoner is charged is shown to be an offense punishable by death or life imprisonment under the laws of the state in which it was committed, or unless the prisoner is charged as a parole violator or escaped convict, a judge or magistrate in this state may admit the person arrested to bail by bond, with sufficient sureties, and in such sum as the judge or magistrate deems proper, conditioned for the prisoner’s appearance at a time specified in such bond, and for the person’s surrender, to be arrested upon the warrant of the Governor of this state. No prisoner may be admitted to bail after having been arrested upon the warrant of the Governor of this state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1101; A 1973, 800)

      NRS 179.211  Extension of time of commitment; adjournment.  If the accused is not arrested under warrant of the Governor by the expiration of the time specified in the warrant or bond, a judge or magistrate may discharge or may recommit the accused for a further period not to exceed 60 days, or a judge or magistrate judge may again take bail for the accused’s appearance and surrender, as provided in NRS 179.209, but within a period not to exceed 60 days after the date of such new bond.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1101)

      NRS 179.213  Forfeiture of bail.  If the prisoner is admitted to bail, and fails to appear and surrender according to the conditions of the prisoner’s bond, the judge, or magistrate by proper order, shall declare the bond forfeited and order the prisoner’s immediate arrest without warrant if the prisoner is within this state. Recovery may be had on such bond in the name of the State as in the case of other bonds given by the accused in criminal proceedings within this state.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102)

      NRS 179.215  Persons under criminal prosecution in this State at time of requisition.  If a criminal prosecution has been instituted against such person under the laws of this State and is still pending, the Governor, in the Governor’s discretion, either may surrender the person on demand of the executive authority of another state or hold the person until the person has been tried and discharged or convicted and punished in this State.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102)

      NRS 179.217  Guilt or innocence of accused: When inquired into.  The guilt or innocence of the accused as to the crime of which the accused is charged may not be inquired into by the Governor or in any proceeding after the demand for extradition accompanied by a charge of crime in legal form as above provided has been presented to the Governor, except as it may be involved in identifying the person held as the person charged with the crime.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102)

      NRS 179.219  Governor may recall warrant or issue alias.  The Governor may recall a warrant of arrest or may issue another warrant whenever the Governor deems proper.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102)

      NRS 179.221  Fugitives from this State; duty of Governor.  Whenever the Governor of this State demands a person charged with crime or with escaping from confinement or breaking the terms of bail, probation or parole in this State, from the executive authority of any other state, or from the Chief Justice or an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia authorized to receive such demand under the laws of the United States, the Governor shall issue a warrant under the seal of this State, to some agent, commanding the agent to receive the person so charged if delivered and convey the person to the proper officer of the county in this State in which the offense was committed.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102)

      NRS 179.223  Application for issuance of requisition: By whom made; contents.

      1.  When the return to this state of a person charged with crime in this state is required, the district attorney shall present to the Governor a written application for a requisition for the return of the person charged in which application must be stated:

      (a) The name of the person so charged;

      (b) The crime charged against the person;

      (c) The approximate time, place and circumstances of its commission;

      (d) The state in which the person is believed to be, including the location of the accused therein at the time the application is made; and

      (e) A certification that, in the opinion of the district attorney, the ends of justice require the arrest and return of the accused to this state for trial and that the proceeding is not instituted to enforce a private claim.

      2.  When the return to this state is required of a person who has been convicted of a crime in this state and has escaped from confinement or broken the terms of the person’s bail, probation or parole, the district attorney of the county in which the offense was committed, the State Board of Parole Commissioners, the Chief Parole and Probation Officer, the Director of the Department of Corrections or the sheriff of the county from which escape was made shall present to the Governor a written application for a requisition for the return of the person, in which application must be stated:

      (a) The name of the person;

      (b) The crime of which the person was convicted;

      (c) The circumstances of the person’s escape from confinement or of the breach of the terms of bail, probation or parole; and

      (d) The state in which the person is believed to be, including the location of the person therein at the time application is made.

      3.  The application must be verified by affidavit, executed in duplicate and accompanied by two certified copies of the indictment returned, or information and affidavit filed, or of the complaint made to the judge or magistrate, stating the offense with which the accused is charged, or of the judgment of conviction or of the sentence. The district attorney, State Board of Parole Commissioners, Chief Parole and Probation Officer, Director of the Department of Corrections or sheriff may also attach such further affidavits and other documents in duplicate as deemed proper to be submitted with the application. One copy of the application, with the action of the Governor indicated by endorsement thereon, and one of the certified copies of the indictment, complaint, information and affidavits, or of the judgment of conviction or of the sentence must be filed in the Office of the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada to remain of record in that office. The other copies of all papers must be forwarded with the Governor’s requisition.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1102; A 1969, 15; 1977, 864; 1985, 149; 2001 Special Session, 224)

      NRS 179.225  Costs and expenses.

      1.  If the punishment of the crime is the confinement of the criminal in prison, the expenses must be paid from money appropriated to the Office of the Attorney General for that purpose, upon approval by the State Board of Examiners. After the appropriation is exhausted, the expenses must be paid from the Reserve for Statutory Contingency Account upon approval by the State Board of Examiners. In all other cases, they must be paid out of the county treasury in the county wherein the crime is alleged to have been committed. The expenses are:

      (a) If the prisoner is returned to this State from another state, the fees paid to the officers of the state on whose governor the requisition is made;

      (b) If the prisoner is returned to this State from a foreign country or jurisdiction, the fees paid to the officers and agents of this State or the United States; or

      (c) If the prisoner is temporarily returned for prosecution to this State from another state pursuant to this chapter or chapter 178 of NRS and is then returned to the sending state upon completion of the prosecution, the fees paid to the officers and agents of this State,

Ê and the per diem allowance and travel expenses provided for state officers and employees generally incurred in returning the prisoner.

      2.  If a person is returned to this State pursuant to this chapter or chapter 178 of NRS and is convicted of, or pleads guilty, guilty but mentally ill or nolo contendere to, the criminal charge for which the person was returned or a lesser criminal charge, the court shall conduct an investigation of the financial status of the person to determine the ability to make restitution. In conducting the investigation, the court shall determine if the person is able to pay any existing obligations for:

      (a) Child support;

      (b) Restitution to victims of crimes; and

      (c) Any administrative assessment required to be paid pursuant to NRS 62E.270, 176.059, 176.0611, 176.0613, 176.062 and 176.0623.

      3.  If the court determines that the person is financially able to pay the obligations described in subsection 2, it shall, in addition to any other sentence it may impose, order the person to make restitution for the expenses incurred by the Office of the Attorney General or other governmental entity in returning the person to this State. The court shall not order the person to make restitution if payment of restitution will prevent the person from paying any existing obligations described in subsection 2. Any amount of restitution remaining unpaid constitutes a civil liability arising upon the date of the completion of the sentence.

      4.  If the court orders a person to make restitution for the expenses incurred by the Office of the Attorney General in returning the person to this State pursuant to this section, the Office of the Attorney General shall assign the collection of such restitution to the State Controller in accordance with the provisions of NRS 353C.195.

      5.  The Attorney General may adopt regulations to carry out the provisions of this section.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1103; A 1968, 22; 1969, 640; 1973, 170; 1983, 727; 1991, 1754; 1993, 305, 935; 1995, 2459; 1997, 150, 1599; 2003, 1121, 1473, 2105; 2007, 598, 1427; 2013, 820, 1072)

      NRS 179.227  Immunity from service of process in certain civil actions.  A person brought into this State by, or after waiver of, extradition based on a criminal charge shall not be subject to service of personal process in civil actions arising out of the same facts as the criminal proceeding to answer which the person is being or has been returned, until the person has been convicted in the criminal proceeding, or, if acquitted, until the person has had reasonable opportunity to return to the state from which the person was extradited.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1103)

      NRS 179.229  Written waiver of extradition proceedings.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3, a person arrested in this State who is charged with having committed a crime in another state or who is alleged to have escaped from confinement, or broken the terms of the person’s bail, probation or parole may waive the issuance and service of the warrant provided for in NRS 179.191 and 179.193 and all other procedure incidental to extradition proceedings, by executing or subscribing in the presence of a judge of a court of record within this State a writing which states that the person consents to return to the demanding state. Before the waiver is executed or subscribed, the judge shall inform the person of the rights to the issuance and service of a warrant of extradition and to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as provided for in NRS 179.197.

      2.  An executed waiver must be forwarded immediately to the Office of the Attorney General of this State and filed therein. The judge shall remand the person to custody without bail, unless otherwise stipulated by the district attorney with the concurrence of the other state, and shall direct the officer having the person in custody to deliver the person immediately to an accredited agent of the demanding state, and shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the agent a copy of the waiver.

      3.  A law enforcement agency which has custody of a person in this State who is alleged to have broken the terms of the person’s probation, parole, bail or other release shall, after the resolution of all criminal charges filed in this State against that person, immediately deliver that person to the accredited agent of the demanding state without a warrant issued pursuant to NRS 179.191 and 179.193 if:

      (a) The person has signed a waiver of extradition as a condition of probation, parole, bail or other release in the demanding state; and

      (b) The law enforcement agency has received:

             (1) An authenticated copy of the waiver of extradition signed by the person; and

             (2) A photograph and copy of the fingerprints of the person that identify him or her as the person who signed the waiver.

      4.  This section does not limit:

      (a) The right of the accused person to return voluntarily and without formality to the demanding state;

      (b) The powers, rights or duties of the officers of the demanding state or of this State; or

      (c) Other procedures concerning the waiver of extradition.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1103; A 1991, 153; 1993, 249; 1997, 151)

      NRS 179.231  Nonwaiver by this State.  Nothing contained in NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, shall be deemed to constitute a waiver by this State of its right, power or privilege to try such demanded person for crime committed within this State, or of its right, power or privilege to regain custody of such person by extradition proceedings or otherwise for the purpose of trial, sentence or punishment for any crime committed within this State, nor shall any proceedings had under NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, which result in, or fail to result in, extradition be deemed a waiver by this State of any of its rights, privileges or jurisdiction in any way whatsoever.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1104)

      NRS 179.233  No right of asylum; no immunity from other criminal prosecutions while in this State.  After a person has been brought back to this State by or after waiver of extradition proceedings, the person may be tried in this State for other crimes which the person may be charged with having committed here as well as that specified in the requisition for extradition.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1104)

      NRS 179.235  Interpretation.  The provisions of NRS 179.177 to 179.235, inclusive, shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate their general purposes to make uniform the law of those states which enact them.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1104)

SEALING RECORDS OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS

      NRS 179.241  Definitions.  As used in NRS 179.241 to 179.301, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NRS 179.242, 179.243 and 179.244 have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.

      (Added to NRS by 2013, 107)

      NRS 179.242  “Agency of criminal justice” defined.  “Agency of criminal justice” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179A.030.

      (Added to NRS by 2013, 107)

      NRS 179.243  “Disposition” defined.  “Disposition” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179A.050.

      (Added to NRS by 2013, 107)

      NRS 179.244  “Record” defined.  “Record” has the meaning ascribed to “record of criminal history” in NRS 179A.070.

      (Added to NRS by 2013, 107)

      NRS 179.245  Sealing records after conviction: Persons eligible; petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 5 and NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.259, 453.3365 and 458.330, a person may petition the court in which the person was convicted for the sealing of all records relating to a conviction of:

      (a) A category A or B felony after 15 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (b) A category C or D felony after 12 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (c) A category E felony after 7 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (d) Any gross misdemeanor after 5 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from probation, whichever occurs later;

      (e) A violation of NRS 484C.110 or 484C.120 other than a felony, or a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018 other than a felony, after 7 years from the date of release from actual custody or from the date when the person is no longer under a suspended sentence, whichever occurs later; or

      (f) Any other misdemeanor after 2 years from the date of release from actual custody or from the date when the person is no longer under a suspended sentence, whichever occurs later.

      2.  A petition filed pursuant to subsection 1 must:

      (a) Be accompanied by the petitioner’s current, verified records received from:

             (1) The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History; and

             (2) All agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records within the city or county in which the conviction was entered;

      (b) If the petition references NRS 453.3365 or 458.330, include a certificate of acknowledgment or the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed from all agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records;

      (c) Include a list of any other public or private agency, company, official or other custodian of records that is reasonably known to the petitioner to have possession of records of the conviction and to whom the order to seal records, if issued, will be directed; and

      (d) Include information that, to the best knowledge and belief of the petitioner, accurately and completely identifies the records to be sealed, including, without limitation, the:

             (1) Date of birth of the petitioner;

             (2) Specific conviction to which the records to be sealed pertain; and

             (3) Date of arrest relating to the specific conviction to which the records to be sealed pertain.

      3.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to this section, the court shall notify the law enforcement agency that arrested the petitioner for the crime and:

      (a) If the person was convicted in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the person was convicted in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      4.  If, after the hearing, the court finds that, in the period prescribed in subsection 1, the petitioner has not been charged with any offense for which the charges are pending or convicted of any offense, except for minor moving or standing traffic violations, the court may order sealed all records of the conviction which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private agency, company, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada, and may also order all such records of the petitioner returned to the file of the court where the proceeding was commenced from, including, without limitation, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Information and all agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records and which are reasonably known by either the petitioner or the court to have possession of such records.

      5.  A person may not petition the court to seal records relating to a conviction of a crime against a child or a sexual offense.

      6.  If the court grants a petition for the sealing of records pursuant to this section, upon the request of the person whose records are sealed, the court may order sealed all records of the civil proceeding in which the records were sealed.

      7.  As used in this section:

      (a) “Crime against a child” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179D.0357.

      (b) “Sexual offense” means:

             (1) Murder of the first degree committed in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of sexual assault or of sexual abuse or sexual molestation of a child less than 14 years of age pursuant to paragraph (b) of subsection 1 of NRS 200.030.

             (2) Sexual assault pursuant to NRS 200.366.

             (3) Statutory sexual seduction pursuant to NRS 200.368, if punishable as a felony.

             (4) Battery with intent to commit sexual assault pursuant to NRS 200.400.

             (5) An offense involving the administration of a drug to another person with the intent to enable or assist the commission of a felony pursuant to NRS 200.405, if the felony is an offense listed in this paragraph.

             (6) An offense involving the administration of a controlled substance to another person with the intent to enable or assist the commission of a crime of violence pursuant to NRS 200.408, if the crime of violence is an offense listed in this paragraph.

             (7) Abuse of a child pursuant to NRS 200.508, if the abuse involved sexual abuse or sexual exploitation.

             (8) An offense involving pornography and a minor pursuant to NRS 200.710 to 200.730, inclusive.

             (9) Incest pursuant to NRS 201.180.

             (10) Open or gross lewdness pursuant to NRS 201.210, if punishable as a felony.

             (11) Indecent or obscene exposure pursuant to NRS 201.220, if punishable as a felony.

             (12) Lewdness with a child pursuant to NRS 201.230.

             (13) Sexual penetration of a dead human body pursuant to NRS 201.450.

             (14) Luring a child or a person with mental illness pursuant to NRS 201.560, if punishable as a felony.

             (15) An attempt to commit an offense listed in this paragraph.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 955; A 1983, 1088; 1991, 303; 1993, 38; 1997, 1673, 1803, 3159; 1999, 647, 648, 649; 2001, 1167, 1692; 2001 Special Session, 261; 2003, 312, 316, 319, 1385; 2005, 2355; 2007, 2751; 2009, 105, 418, 1884; 2013, 107, 980, 1165)

      NRS 179.245  Sealing records after conviction: Persons eligible; petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 5 and NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.259, 453.3365 and 458.330, a person may petition the court in which the person was convicted for the sealing of all records relating to a conviction of:

      (a) A category A or B felony after 15 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (b) A category C or D felony after 12 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (c) A category E felony after 7 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from parole or probation, whichever occurs later;

      (d) Any gross misdemeanor after 5 years from the date of release from actual custody or discharge from probation, whichever occurs later;

      (e) A violation of NRS 484C.110 or 484C.120 other than a felony, or a battery which constitutes domestic violence pursuant to NRS 33.018 other than a felony, after 7 years from the date of release from actual custody or from the date when the person is no longer under a suspended sentence, whichever occurs later; or

      (f) Any other misdemeanor after 2 years from the date of release from actual custody or from the date when the person is no longer under a suspended sentence, whichever occurs later.

      2.  A petition filed pursuant to subsection 1 must:

      (a) Be accompanied by the petitioner’s current, verified records received from:

             (1) The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History; and

             (2) All agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records within the city or county in which the conviction was entered;

      (b) If the petition references NRS 453.3365 or 458.330, include a certificate of acknowledgment or the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed from all agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records;

      (c) Include a list of any other public or private agency, company, official or other custodian of records that is reasonably known to the petitioner to have possession of records of the conviction and to whom the order to seal records, if issued, will be directed; and

      (d) Include information that, to the best knowledge and belief of the petitioner, accurately and completely identifies the records to be sealed, including, without limitation, the:

             (1) Date of birth of the petitioner;

             (2) Specific conviction to which the records to be sealed pertain; and

             (3) Date of arrest relating to the specific conviction to which the records to be sealed pertain.

      3.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to this section, the court shall notify the law enforcement agency that arrested the petitioner for the crime and:

      (a) If the person was convicted in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the person was convicted in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      4.  If, after the hearing, the court finds that, in the period prescribed in subsection 1, the petitioner has not been charged with any offense for which the charges are pending or convicted of any offense, except for minor moving or standing traffic violations, the court may order sealed all records of the conviction which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private agency, company, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada, and may also order all such records of the petitioner returned to the file of the court where the proceeding was commenced from, including, without limitation, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the California Bureau of Criminal Identification and Information and all other agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records and which are reasonably known by either the petitioner or the court to have possession of such records.

      5.  A person may not petition the court to seal records relating to a conviction of:

      (a) A crime against a child;

      (b) A sexual offense;

      (c) A violation of NRS 484C.110 or 484C.120 that is punishable as a felony pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection 1 of NRS 484C.400;

      (d) A violation of NRS 484C.430;

      (e) A homicide resulting from driving or being in actual physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or a controlled substance or resulting from any other conduct prohibited by NRS 484C.110, 484C.130 or 484C.430;

      (f) A violation of NRS 488.410 that is punishable as a felony pursuant to NRS 488.427; or

      (g) A violation of NRS 488.420 or 488.425.

      6.  If the court grants a petition for the sealing of records pursuant to this section, upon the request of the person whose records are sealed, the court may order sealed all records of the civil proceeding in which the records were sealed.

      7.  As used in this section:

      (a) “Crime against a child” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179D.0357.

      (b) “Sexual offense” means:

             (1) Murder of the first degree committed in the perpetration or attempted perpetration of sexual assault or of sexual abuse or sexual molestation of a child less than 14 years of age pursuant to paragraph (b) of subsection 1 of NRS 200.030.

             (2) Sexual assault pursuant to NRS 200.366.

             (3) Statutory sexual seduction pursuant to NRS 200.368, if punishable as a felony.

             (4) Battery with intent to commit sexual assault pursuant to NRS 200.400.

             (5) An offense involving the administration of a drug to another person with the intent to enable or assist the commission of a felony pursuant to NRS 200.405, if the felony is an offense listed in this paragraph.

             (6) An offense involving the administration of a controlled substance to another person with the intent to enable or assist the commission of a crime of violence pursuant to NRS 200.408, if the crime of violence is an offense listed in this paragraph.

             (7) Abuse of a child pursuant to NRS 200.508, if the abuse involved sexual abuse or sexual exploitation.

             (8) An offense involving pornography and a minor pursuant to NRS 200.710 to 200.730, inclusive.

             (9) Incest pursuant to NRS 201.180.

             (10) Open or gross lewdness pursuant to NRS 201.210, if punishable as a felony.

             (11) Indecent or obscene exposure pursuant to NRS 201.220, if punishable as a felony.

             (12) Lewdness with a child pursuant to NRS 201.230.

             (13) Sexual penetration of a dead human body pursuant to NRS 201.450.

             (14) Luring a child or a person with mental illness pursuant to NRS 201.560, if punishable as a felony.

             (15) An attempt to commit an offense listed in this paragraph.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 955; A 1983, 1088; 1991, 303; 1993, 38; 1997, 1673, 1803, 3159; 1999, 647, 648, 649; 2001, 1167, 1692; 2001 Special Session, 261; 2003, 312, 316, 319, 1385; 2005, 2355; 2007, 2751; 2009, 105, 418, 1884; 2013, 107, 980, 1165, 1382, effective January 1, 2014)

      NRS 179.255  Sealing records after dismissal or acquittal: Petition; notice; hearing; order. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

      1.  If a person has been arrested for alleged criminal conduct and the charges are dismissed or such person is acquitted of the charges, the person may petition:

      (a) The court in which the charges were dismissed, at any time after the date the charges were dismissed; or

      (b) The court in which the acquittal was entered, at any time after the date of the acquittal,

Ê for the sealing of all records relating to the arrest and the proceedings leading to the dismissal or acquittal.

      2.  If the conviction of a person is set aside pursuant to NRS 458A.240, the person may petition the court that set aside the conviction, at any time after the conviction has been set aside, for the sealing of all records relating to the setting aside of the conviction.

      3.  A petition filed pursuant to subsection 1 or 2 must:

      (a) Be accompanied by the petitioner’s current, verified records received from:

             (1) The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History; and

             (2) All agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records within the city or county in which the petitioner appeared in court;

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c), include the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed;

      (c) If the petition references NRS 453.3365 or 458.330, include a certificate of acknowledgment or the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed from all agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records;

      (d) Include a list of any other public or private agency, company, official and other custodian of records that is reasonably known to the petitioner to have possession of records of the arrest and of the proceedings leading to the dismissal or acquittal and to whom the order to seal records, if issued, will be directed; and

      (e) Include information that, to the best knowledge and belief of the petitioner, accurately and completely identifies the records to be sealed, including, without limitation, the:

             (1) Date of birth of the petitioner;

             (2) Specific charges that were dismissed or of which the petitioner was acquitted; and

             (3) Date of arrest relating to the specific charges that were dismissed or of which the petitioner was acquitted.

      4.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to subsection 1, the court shall notify the law enforcement agency that arrested the petitioner for the crime and:

      (a) If the charges were dismissed or the acquittal was entered in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the charges were dismissed or the acquittal was entered in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      5.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to subsection 2, the court shall notify:

      (a) If the conviction was set aside in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the conviction was set aside in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      6.  If, after the hearing on a petition submitted pursuant to subsection 1, the court finds that there has been an acquittal or that the charges were dismissed and there is no evidence that further action will be brought against the person, the court may order sealed all records of the arrest and of the proceedings leading to the acquittal or dismissal which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private company, agency, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada.

      7.  If, after the hearing on a petition submitted pursuant to subsection 2, the court finds that the conviction of the petitioner was set aside pursuant to NRS 458A.240, the court may order sealed all records relating to the setting aside of the conviction which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private company, agency, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 955; A 1997, 3160; 2001, 1693; 2009, 1439; 2013, 110)

      NRS 179.255  Sealing of records after dismissal, decline of prosecution or acquittal: Petition; notice; hearing; order; inspection of records. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

      1.  If a person has been arrested for alleged criminal conduct and the charges are dismissed, the prosecuting attorney having jurisdiction declined prosecution of the charges or such person is acquitted of the charges, the person may petition:

      (a) The court in which the charges were dismissed, at any time after the date the charges were dismissed;

      (b) The court having jurisdiction in which the charges were declined for prosecution:

             (1) Any time after the applicable statute of limitations has run;

             (2) Any time 10 years after the arrest; or

             (3) Pursuant to a stipulation between the parties; or

      (c) The court in which the acquittal was entered, at any time after the date of the acquittal,

Ê for the sealing of all records relating to the arrest and the proceedings leading to the dismissal, declination or acquittal.

      2.  If the conviction of a person is set aside pursuant to NRS 458A.240, the person may petition the court that set aside the conviction, at any time after the conviction has been set aside, for the sealing of all records relating to the setting aside of the conviction.

      3.  A petition filed pursuant to subsection 1 or 2 must:

      (a) Be accompanied by the petitioner’s current, verified records received from:

             (1) The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History; and

             (2) All agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records within the city or county in which the petitioner appeared in court;

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c), include the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed;

      (c) If the petition references NRS 453.3365 or 458.330, include a certificate of acknowledgment or the disposition of the proceedings for the records to be sealed from all agencies of criminal justice which maintain such records;

      (d) Include a list of any other public or private agency, company, official and other custodian of records that is reasonably known to the petitioner to have possession of records of the arrest and of the proceedings leading to the dismissal, declination or acquittal and to whom the order to seal records, if issued, will be directed; and

      (e) Include information that, to the best knowledge and belief of the petitioner, accurately and completely identifies the records to be sealed, including, without limitation, the:

             (1) Date of birth of the petitioner;

             (2) Specific charges that were dismissed or of which the petitioner was acquitted; and

             (3) Date of arrest relating to the specific charges that were dismissed or of which the petitioner was acquitted.

      4.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to subsection 1, the court shall notify the law enforcement agency that arrested the petitioner for the crime and:

      (a) If the charges were dismissed, declined for prosecution or the acquittal was entered in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the charges were dismissed, declined for prosecution or the acquittal was entered in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      5.  Upon receiving a petition pursuant to subsection 2, the court shall notify:

      (a) If the conviction was set aside in a district court or justice court, the prosecuting attorney for the county; or

      (b) If the conviction was set aside in a municipal court, the prosecuting attorney for the city.

Ê The prosecuting attorney and any person having relevant evidence may testify and present evidence at the hearing on the petition.

      6.  If, after the hearing on a petition submitted pursuant to subsection 1, the court finds that there has been an acquittal, that the prosecution was declined or that the charges were dismissed and there is no evidence that further action will be brought against the person, the court may order sealed all records of the arrest and of the proceedings leading to the acquittal, declination or dismissal which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private company, agency, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada.

      7.  If, after the hearing on a petition submitted pursuant to subsection 2, the court finds that the conviction of the petitioner was set aside pursuant to NRS 458A.240, the court may order sealed all records relating to the setting aside of the conviction which are in the custody of any agency of criminal justice or any public or private company, agency, official or other custodian of records in the State of Nevada.

      8.  If the prosecuting attorney having jurisdiction previously declined prosecution of the charges and the records of the arrest have been sealed pursuant to subsection 6, the prosecuting attorney may subsequently file the charges at any time before the running of the statute of limitations for those charges. If such charges are filed with the court, the court shall order the inspection of the records without the prosecuting attorney having to petition the court pursuant to NRS 179.295.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 955; A 1997, 3160; 2001, 1693; 2009, 1439; 2013, 110, 1385, effective January 1, 2014)

      NRS 179.259  Sealing records after completion of program for reentry: Persons eligible; procedure; order; inspection of sealed records by professional licensing board.

      1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsections 3 and 4, 5 years after an eligible person completes a program for reentry, the court may order sealed all documents, papers and exhibits in the eligible person’s record, minute book entries and entries on dockets, and other documents relating to the case in the custody of such other agencies and officers as are named in the court’s order. The court may order those records sealed without a hearing unless the Division of Parole and Probation of the Department of Public Safety petitions the court, for good cause shown, not to seal the records and requests a hearing thereon.

      2.  If the court orders sealed the record of an eligible person, the court shall send a copy of the order to each agency or officer named in the order. Each such agency or officer shall notify the court in writing of its compliance with the order.

      3.  A professional licensing board is entitled, for the purpose of determining suitability for a license or liability to discipline for misconduct, to inspect and to copy from a record sealed pursuant to this section.

      4.  A person may not petition the court to seal records relating to a conviction of a crime against a child or a sexual offense.

      5.  As used in this section:

      (a) “Crime against a child” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179D.0357.

      (b) “Eligible person” means a person who has:

             (1) Successfully completed a program for reentry to which the person participated in pursuant to NRS 209.4886, 209.4888, 213.625 or 213.632; and

             (2) Been convicted of a single offense which was punishable as a felony and which did not involve the use or threatened use of force or violence against the victim. For the purposes of this subparagraph, multiple convictions for an offense punishable as a felony shall be deemed to constitute a single offense if those offenses arose out of the same transaction or occurrence.

      (c) “Program for reentry” means:

             (1) A correctional program for reentry of offenders and parolees into the community that is established by the Director of the Department of Corrections pursuant to NRS 209.4887; or

             (2) A judicial program for reentry of offenders and parolees into the community that is established in a judicial district pursuant to NRS 209.4883.

      (d) “Sexual offense” has the meaning ascribed to it in paragraph (b) of subsection 7 of NRS 179.245.

      (Added to NRS by 2001, 1166; A 2003, 26, 2586; 2007, 2753)

      NRS 179.265  Rehearings after denial of petition: Time for; number.

      1.  A person whose petition is denied under NRS 179.245 or 179.255 may petition for a rehearing not sooner than 2 years after the denial of the previous petition.

      2.  No person may petition for more than two rehearings.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 956)

      NRS 179.275  Order sealing records: Distribution to Central Repository and persons named in order; compliance.  Where the court orders the sealing of a record pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330, a copy of the order must be sent to:

      1.  The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History; and

      2.  Each agency of criminal justice and each public or private company, agency, official or other custodian of records named in the order, and that person shall seal the records in his or her custody which relate to the matters contained in the order, shall advise the court of compliance and shall then seal the order.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 956; A 1991, 304; 1999, 2089; 2001, 1168; 2001 Special Session, 261; 2003, 312; 2009, 107, 420; 2013, 111)

      NRS 179.285  Order sealing records: Effect; proceedings deemed never to have occurred; restoration of civil rights.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 179.301:

      1.  If the court orders a record sealed pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330:

      (a) All proceedings recounted in the record are deemed never to have occurred, and the person to whom the order pertains may properly answer accordingly to any inquiry, including, without limitation, an inquiry relating to an application for employment, concerning the arrest, conviction, dismissal or acquittal and the events and proceedings relating to the arrest, conviction, dismissal or acquittal.

      (b) The person is immediately restored to the following civil rights if the person’s civil rights previously have not been restored:

             (1) The right to vote;

             (2) The right to hold office; and

             (3) The right to serve on a jury.

      2.  Upon the sealing of the person’s records, a person who is restored to his or her civil rights pursuant to subsection 1 must be given:

      (a) An official document which demonstrates that the person has been restored to the civil rights set forth in paragraph (b) of subsection 1; and

      (b) A written notice informing the person that he or she has not been restored to the right to bear arms, unless the person has received a pardon and the pardon does not restrict his or her right to bear arms.

      3.  A person who has had his or her records sealed in this State or any other state and whose official documentation of the restoration of civil rights is lost, damaged or destroyed may file a written request with a court of competent jurisdiction to restore his or her civil rights pursuant to this section. Upon verification that the person has had his or her records sealed, the court shall issue an order restoring the person to the civil rights to vote, to hold office and to serve on a jury. A person must not be required to pay a fee to receive such an order.

      4.  A person who has had his or her records sealed in this State or any other state may present official documentation that the person has been restored to his or her civil rights or a court order restoring civil rights as proof that the person has been restored to the right to vote, to hold office and to serve as a juror.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 956; A 1981, 1105; 1991, 304; 2001, 1169, 1694; 2001 Special Session, 262; 2003, 312, 316, 319, 2687; 2009, 108, 420; 2011, 22)

      NRS 179.295  Reopening of sealed records. [Effective through December 31, 2013.]

      1.  The person who is the subject of the records that are sealed pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 may petition the court that ordered the records sealed to permit inspection of the records by a person named in the petition, and the court may order such inspection. Except as otherwise provided in this section and NRS 179.259 and 179.301, the court may not order the inspection of the records under any other circumstances.

      2.  If a person has been arrested, the charges have been dismissed and the records of the arrest have been sealed, the court may order the inspection of the records by a prosecuting attorney upon a showing that as a result of newly discovered evidence, the person has been arrested for the same or a similar offense and that there is sufficient evidence reasonably to conclude that the person will stand trial for the offense.

      3.  The court may, upon the application of a prosecuting attorney or an attorney representing a defendant in a criminal action, order an inspection of such records for the purpose of obtaining information relating to persons who were involved in the incident recorded.

      4.  This section does not prohibit a court from considering a conviction for which records have been sealed pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 in determining whether to grant a petition pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 for a conviction of another offense.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 956; A 1981, 1105; 1991, 304; 1997, 3160; 2001, 1169, 1694; 2001 Special Session, 262; 2003, 312, 316, 319; 2009, 108, 420)

      NRS 179.295  Reopening of sealed records. [Effective January 1, 2014.]

      1.  The person who is the subject of the records that are sealed pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 may petition the court that ordered the records sealed to permit inspection of the records by a person named in the petition, and the court may order such inspection. Except as otherwise provided in this section, subsection 8 of NRS 179.255 and NRS 179.259 and 179.301, the court may not order the inspection of the records under any other circumstances.

      2.  If a person has been arrested, the charges have been dismissed and the records of the arrest have been sealed, the court may order the inspection of the records by a prosecuting attorney upon a showing that as a result of newly discovered evidence, the person has been arrested for the same or a similar offense and that there is sufficient evidence reasonably to conclude that the person will stand trial for the offense.

      3.  The court may, upon the application of a prosecuting attorney or an attorney representing a defendant in a criminal action, order an inspection of such records for the purpose of obtaining information relating to persons who were involved in the incident recorded.

      4.  This section does not prohibit a court from considering a conviction for which records have been sealed pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 in determining whether to grant a petition pursuant to NRS 176A.265, 176A.295, 179.245, 179.255, 179.259, 453.3365 or 458.330 for a conviction of another offense.

      (Added to NRS by 1971, 956; A 1981, 1105; 1991, 304; 1997, 3160; 2001, 1169, 1694; 2001 Special Session, 262; 2003, 312, 316, 319; 2009, 108, 420; 2013, 1386, effective January 1, 2014)

      NRS 179.301  Inspection of sealed records by certain agencies.

      1.  The State Gaming Control Board and the Nevada Gaming Commission and their employees, agents and representatives may inquire into and inspect any records sealed pursuant to NRS 179.245 or 179.255, if the event or conviction was related to gaming, to determine the suitability or qualifications of any person to hold a state gaming license, manufacturer’s, seller’s or distributor’s license or registration as a gaming employee pursuant to chapter 463 of NRS. Events and convictions, if any, which are the subject of an order sealing records:

      (a) May form the basis for recommendation, denial or revocation of those licenses.

      (b) Must not form the basis for denial or rejection of a gaming work permit unless the event or conviction relates to the applicant’s suitability or qualifications to hold the work permit.

      2.  A prosecuting attorney may inquire into and inspect any records sealed pursuant to NRS 179.245 or 179.255 if:

      (a) The records relate to a violation or alleged violation of NRS 202.575; and

      (b) The person who is the subject of the records has been arrested or issued a citation for violating NRS 202.575.

      3.  The Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History and its employees may inquire into and inspect any records sealed pursuant to NRS 179.245 or 179.255 that constitute information relating to sexual offenses, and may notify employers of the information in accordance with NRS 179A.180 to 179A.240, inclusive.

      4.  Records which have been sealed pursuant to NRS 179.245 or 179.255 and which are retained in the statewide registry established pursuant to NRS 179B.200 may be inspected pursuant to chapter 179B of NRS by an officer or employee of the Central Repository for Nevada Records of Criminal History or a law enforcement officer in the regular course of his or her duties.

      5.  The State Board of Pardons Commissioners and its agents and representatives may inquire into and inspect any records sealed pursuant to NRS 179.245 or 179.255 if the person who is the subject of the records has applied for a pardon from the Board.

      6.  As used in this section:

      (a) “Information relating to sexual offenses” means information contained in or concerning a record relating in any way to a sexual offense.

      (b) “Sexual offense” has the meaning ascribed to it in NRS 179A.073.

      (Added to NRS by 1981, 1105; A 1987, 1759; 1997, 1674; 2003, 2688, 2833; 2003, 20th Special Session, 16; 2005, 973; 2011, 23; 2013, 111)

REWARDS

      NRS 179.310  Reward for apprehension of robber.

      1.  The Governor shall offer a standing reward of $250 for the arrest of:

      (a) Each person engaged in the robbery of, or in the attempt to rob, any person upon, or having in charge in whole or in part, any railroad train or other conveyance engaged at the time in conveying passengers, or any private conveyance within this State.

      (b) Each person engaged in the robbery of, or in the attempt to rob, any person upon any highway in this State.

      2.  The reward must be paid to the person or persons making the arrest immediately upon the conviction of the person so arrested, but no reward may be paid except after such a conviction.

      3.  The reward must be paid from the Reserve for Statutory Contingency Account upon approval by the State Board of Examiners.

      4.  The provisions of this section do not apply to any sheriff, constable, marshal or police officer who makes an arrest in the performance of the duties of his or her office in the county where the officer resides or in which the official duties are required to be performed.

      [1:53:1877; A 1885, 35; BH § 1918; C § 1927; RL § 3905; NCL § 6720]—(NRS A 1963, 1111; 1991, 1754)

FORMS

      NRS 179.315  Use of authorized forms.

      1.  Unless otherwise expressly required by this title, no particular form of words is required to be used in any pleading, warrant, order, motion or other paper incident to a criminal proceeding. Substantial compliance with any statutory requirement as to content, or in the absence of any such requirement, language which reasonably informs the defendant or other person to whom such paper is directed of its nature, is sufficient.

      2.  The use of one of the forms set out in NRS 179.320 to 179.400, inclusive, modified as may be necessary to fit the case, is prima facie sufficient for their respective purposes.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461)

      NRS 179.320  Warrant of arrest.  A warrant of arrest may be in substantially the following form:

 

Warrant of Arrest

 

       County of ............................... The State of Nevada, to any sheriff, constable, marshal, police officer, or peace officer in this State: A complaint, upon oath, has been this day laid before me by A. B. that the crime of (designate it) has been committed, and accusing C. D. thereof; you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest the above-named C. D. and bring him or her before me at (naming the place), or, in case of my absence or inability to act, before the nearest or most accessible magistrate in this county.

 

       Dated at ............................., this ....... day of the month of ............ of the year .......

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                          (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461; A 2001, 39)

      NRS 179.325  Summons.  A summons may be in substantially the following form:

 

Summons

 

State of Nevada                            }

                                                         }ss.

County of...................................... }

 

       The State of Nevada to the (naming defendant or corporation):

       You are hereby summoned to appear before me at (naming the place) on (specifying the day and hour), to answer a charge made against you upon the complaint of A. B. for (designating the offense generally).

 

       Dated at .............................., this ....... day of the month of ........... of the year .......

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                          (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1462; A 2001, 39)

      NRS 179.330  Search warrant.  A search warrant may be in substantially the following form:

 

Search Warrant

 

State of Nevada                            }

                                                         }ss.

County of...................................... }

 

       The State of Nevada, to any peace officer in the County of ................. Proof by affidavit having been made before me by (naming every person whose affidavit has been taken) that (stating the grounds or probable cause for issuance).

       You are hereby commanded to search (naming the person or describing with reasonable particularity the place to be searched) for the following property (describing it with reasonable particularity), making the search (in the daytime or at any time, as determined by the magistrate) and if any such property is found there to seize it, prepare a written inventory of the property seized and bring the property before me (or another designated magistrate).

 

       Dated at .............................., this ....... day of the month of ........... of the year .......

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                          (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1462; A 2001, 40)

      NRS 179.335  Motion for return of seized property and suppression of evidence.  A motion for the return of seized property and the suppression of evidence may be in substantially the following form:

 

Motion for the Return of Seized Property

and the Suppression of Evidence

 

       Defendant (naming defendant) hereby moves this court to direct that certain property of which the defendant is the owner, a schedule of which is annexed hereto, and which on (stating date and time), at (describing the place), was unlawfully seized and taken from the defendant by a peace officer of the State of Nevada (name and designation of peace officer, or, if so, state “whose true name is unknown to the petitioner”), be returned and that it be suppressed as evidence against the defendant in any criminal proceeding.

       The petitioner further states that the property was seized against his or her will and without a search warrant (or other reason why the warrant is defective or illegal).

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                                          (Attorney for Petitioner)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1462)

      NRS 179.340  Bail: After arrest and before preliminary examination.  An undertaking for bail after arrest and before preliminary examination may be in substantially the following form:

 

Undertaking

 

       A warrant having been issued on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ......., by ........................, a justice of the peace of ........................ County, for the arrest of ........................ (stating name of the accused), upon a charge of ........................ (stating briefly the nature of the offense), upon which the accused has been arrested and duly ordered admitted to bail in the sum of .................. dollars and ordered to appear before the magistrate who issued the warrant, we, ......................., of ........................, and ........................ (stating their names and place of residence), hereby undertake that the above-named ........................ shall appear and answer the charge above mentioned, at ............. o’clock ...m., on the ....... day of the month of ........... of the year ......., before ........................, the magistrate issuing the warrant, at the magistrate’s office in ....................., ..................... County, State of Nevada, and that the above-named (insert name of accused) shall appear and answer the charge above mentioned in whatever court and before whatever magistrate it may be prosecuted, or before which the accused may be required to appear by law, and shall at all times render himself or herself amenable to the orders and process of the court and the requirements of the law, and if convicted shall appear for judgment and render himself or herself in execution thereof; or if the accused fails to perform any of these conditions, that we will pay to the State of Nevada the sum of ............. dollars (inserting the sum in which the defendant is admitted to bail).

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                                            (Signatures of Sureties)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1463; A 2001, 40)

      NRS 179.345  Endorsement on warrant of arrest for commitment for preliminary examination.  An endorsement on a warrant of arrest for commitment for preliminary examination may be in substantially the following form:

 

Endorsement

 

       The within-named A. B., having been brought before me under this warrant, is committed for examination to the sheriff (or other appropriate peace officer) of the County of .............................

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                          (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1463)

      NRS 179.350  Discharge after preliminary examination.  A discharge after preliminary examination may be in substantially the following form:

 

Discharge

 

       There being no sufficient cause to believe the within-named A. B. guilty of the offense within named, I order A.B. to be discharged.

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                          (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1463)

      NRS 179.355  Commitment and bail after preliminary examination.  Commitment and bail may be in substantially the following form:

 

Commitment and Bail

 

       It appearing to me by the within depositions and statement (if any) that the offense therein named (or any other offense according to the fact, stating generally the nature thereof) has been committed, and that there is sufficient cause to believe the within-named A. B. guilty thereof, I order that A. B. be held to answer the same (and A. B. is hereby committed to the sheriff of the County of ........................) or (and I have admitted A. B. to bail to answer by the undertaking hereto annexed) or (and that A. B. be admitted to bail in the sum of ............. dollars, and is committed to the sheriff of the County of ........................ until A. B. give such bail).

 

                                           ...............................................................................................

                                                      (Signature and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1463)

      NRS 179.360  Commitment where defendant held to answer after preliminary examination.  A commitment where defendant is held to answer after a preliminary examination may be in substantially the following form:

 

Commitment

 

       County of ........................ (as the case may be).

       The State of Nevada to the sheriff of the County of .............................: An order having been this day made by me that A. B. be held to answer upon a charge of (stating briefly the nature of the offense, and giving as near as may be the time when and the place where the same was committed), you are commanded to receive A. B. into your custody and detain A. B. until A. B. is legally discharged.

 

       Dated this ........ day of the month of ............ of the year .......

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                   (Signatures and official title of magistrate)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1464; A 2001, 41)

      NRS 179.365  Bail after preliminary examination and before arraignment.  An undertaking for bail after preliminary examination and before arraignment may be in substantially the following form:

 

Undertaking

 

       An order having been made on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ....... by A. B., a justice of the peace of ............................... County (or as the case may be), that C. D. be held to answer upon a charge of (stating briefly the nature of the offense), upon which C. D. has been duly admitted to bail in the sum of ............. dollars, we, E. F. and G. H. (stating their place of residence), hereby undertake that the above-named C. D. shall appear and answer the charge above mentioned, in whatever court it may be prosecuted, and shall at all times render himself or herself amenable to the orders and process of the court, and, if convicted, shall appear for judgment and render himself or herself in execution thereof, or, if C. D. fail to perform any of these conditions, that we will pay to the State of Nevada the sum of ............ dollars (inserting the sum in which the defendant is admitted to bail).

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                                            (Signature of Sureties)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1464; A 2001, 41)

      NRS 179.370  Indictment.  An indictment may be substantially in the following form:

 

Indictment

 

State of Nevada                              }

                                                           }ss.

County of........................................ }

 

       The State of Nevada, plaintiff, against A. B., defendant (or John Doe, whose real name is unknown). Defendant A. B., above named, is accused by the grand jury of the County of ........................, of a felony (or of the crime of murder or other name of crime), committed as follows: The said A. B., on the ....... day of the month of ........... of the year ......., or thereabouts, at the County of .........................., State of Nevada, without authority of law and with malice aforethought, killed Richard Roe, by shooting with a pistol (or with a gun or other weapon, according to the facts).

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                                                 District Attorney

                                                                   or District Attorney, by Deputy.

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1464; A 2001, 42)

      NRS 179.375  Information.  An information may be in substantially the following form:

 

Information

 

State of Nevada                            }

                                                         }ss.

County of...................................... }

 

       In the ....................... court. The State of Nevada against A. B., C. D. district attorney within and for the County of ........................ in the State aforesaid, in the name and by the authority of the State of Nevada, informs the court that A. B. on the ........ day of the month of ........... of the year ......., at the County of ........................, did (here state offense) against the peace and dignity of the State of Nevada.

 

                                           ...............................................................................................

                                                                       C. D., District Attorney

                                                    or C. D., District Attorney, by H. M., Deputy.

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1465; A 2001, 42)

      NRS 179.380  Warrant upon finding of presentment, indictment or information.  A warrant upon the finding of a presentment, indictment or information may be in substantially the following form:

 

Warrant

 

       County of ........................ The State of Nevada, to any sheriff, constable, marshal, police officer, or peace officer in this State: A presentment having been made or an indictment having been found (or information filed) on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ......., in the district court of the ........................, County of ........................., charging C. D. with the crime of (designating it generally), you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest the above-named C. D. and bring C. D. before that court to answer the presentment, indictment or information; or if the court is not in session that you deliver C. D. into the custody of the sheriff of the County of ........................ By order of the court. Given under my hand with the seal of the court affixed this ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ....... .

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

             (Seal)                                                              E. F., Clerk.

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1465; A 2001, 43)

      NRS 179.385  Bail after arrest on warrant following finding of presentment, indictment or information.  An undertaking for bail after arrest on a warrant following the finding of a presentment, indictment or information may be in substantially the following form:

 

Undertaking

 

       A presentment having been made (or an indictment having been found or an information having been filed), on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ......., in the District Court of the ......................... Judicial District of the State of Nevada, in and for the County of ........................ (as the case may be), charging A. B. with the crime of (indicating it generally), and A. B. having been duly admitted to bail in the sum of ............. dollars, we, C. D. and E. F. (stating their place of residence), hereby undertake that the above-named A. B. shall appear and answer the indictment or information above mentioned in whatever court it may be prosecuted, and shall at all times render himself or herself amenable to the orders and processes of the court, and, if convicted, shall appear for judgment and render himself or herself in execution thereof; or, if A. B. fails to perform either of these conditions, that we will pay to the State of Nevada the sum of ............. dollars (inserting the sum in which the defendant is admitted to bail).

 

                                                       ...................................................................................

 

                                                       ...................................................................................

                                                                              (Signature of Sureties)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1465; A 2001, 43)

      NRS 179.390  Subpoena; subpoena duces tecum.  A subpoena or subpoena duces tecum may be in substantially the following form:

 

Subpoena

 

       The State of Nevada to A. B.: You are commanded to appear before C. D., a justice of the peace of ................ township, in ................ County (or, the court of ................, as the case may be), at (naming the place), on (stating the day and hour), as a witness in a criminal action, prosecuted by the State of Nevada against E. F. Given under my hand this ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ....... . G. H., Justice of the Peace (seal) (or “By order of the court, L. M., Clerk (seal)” as the case may be). (If books, papers or documents are required, a direction to the following effect must be contained in the subpoena: “And you are required also to bring with you the following (describing intelligibly the books, papers or documents required).”)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1466; A 1987, 124; 2001, 44)

      NRS 179.395  Bench warrant after conviction.  A bench warrant may be in substantially the following form:

 

Bench Warrant

 

State of Nevada                            }

                                                         }ss.

County of...................................... }

 

       The State of Nevada, to any sheriff, constable, marshal, police officer or other peace officer in this state: A. B. having been on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ........ duly convicted in the .................... Judicial District Court of the State of Nevada and in and for the County of ...................., of the crime of (designating it generally); you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest the above-named A. B. and bring A. B. before that court for judgment, or if the court has adjourned, that you deliver A. B. into the custody of the sheriff of the County of .................... Given, by order of the court, under my hand with the seal of the court affixed, this the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ....... .

 

                                                                   .......................................................................

             (Seal)                                                                        E. F., Clerk.

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1466; A 2001, 44)

      NRS 179.400  Undertaking on recommitment.  When bail is taken upon the recommitment of the defendant, the undertaking shall be in substantially the following form:

 

Undertaking

 

       An order having been made on the ........ day of the month of ............ of the year ......., by the court (naming it), that A. B. be admitted to bail in the sum of $.........., in an action pending in that court against A. B., in behalf of the State of Nevada, upon a (presentment, indictment, information, or appeal, as the case may be), we, C. D. and E. F., of (stating their place of residence), hereby undertake that the above-named A. B. shall appear in that or any other court in which A. B.’s appearance may be lawfully required, upon that (presentment, indictment, information, or appeal, as the case may be), and shall at all times render himself or herself amenable to its orders and processes, and appear for judgment, and surrender himself or herself in execution thereof; or, if A. B. fail to perform any of these conditions, that we will pay to the State of Nevada the sum of $.......... (inserting the sum in which the defendant is admitted to bail).

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

 

                                                   .......................................................................................

                                                                            (Signature of Sureties)

 

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1466; A 2001, 44)

INTERCEPTION OF WIRE OR ORAL COMMUNICATION

      NRS 179.410  Definitions.  As used in NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, except where the context otherwise requires, the words and terms defined in NRS 179.415 to 179.455, inclusive, have the meanings ascribed to them in those sections.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1742; A 1989, 658)

      NRS 179.415  “Aggrieved person” defined.  “Aggrieved person” means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire or oral communication or a person against whom the interception was directed.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1742)

      NRS 179.420  “Contents” defined.  “Contents” when used with respect to any wire or oral communication includes any information concerning the identity of the parties to such communication or the existence, substance, purport or meaning of that communication.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1742)

      NRS 179.425  “Electronic, mechanical or other device” defined.  “Electronic, mechanical or other device” means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire or oral communication other than:

      1.  Any telephone instrument, equipment or facility, or any component thereof:

      (a) Furnished to the subscriber or user by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business; or

      (b) Being used by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of his or her duties.

      2.  A hearing aid or similar device being used to correct subnormal hearing to not better than normal.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1742; A 2013, 1959)

      NRS 179.430  “Intercept” defined.  “Intercept” means the aural acquisition of the contents of any wire or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical or other device or of any sending or receiving equipment.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.435  “Investigative or law enforcement officer” defined.  “Investigative or law enforcement officer” means any officer of the State or a political subdivision thereof who is empowered by the law of this state to conduct investigations of or to make arrests for felonies, and any attorney authorized by law to prosecute or participate in the prosecution of such offenses.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.440  “Oral communication” defined.  “Oral communication” means any verbal message uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception, under circumstances justifying such expectation.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.445  “Person” defined.  “Person” means any official, employee or agent of the United States or any state or political subdivision thereof, and any individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust or corporation.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.450  “State” defined.  “State” means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and any territory or possession of the United States.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.455  “Wire communication” defined.  “Wire communication” means any communication made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception furnished or operated by any person engaged as a common carrier in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of intrastate, interstate or foreign communications.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743)

      NRS 179.458  Provisions inapplicable to recording of certain telephone calls by public utility.  The provisions of NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, do not prohibit the recording of any telephone call by a public utility pursuant to NRS 704.195.

      (Added to NRS by 1989, 658)

      NRS 179.460  Cases in which interception of wire or oral communications may be authorized.

      1.  The Attorney General or the district attorney of any county may apply to a Supreme Court justice or to a district judge in the county where the interception is to take place for an order authorizing the interception of wire or oral communications, and the judge may, in accordance with NRS 179.470 to 179.515, inclusive, grant an order authorizing the interception of wire or oral communications by investigative or law enforcement officers having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when the interception may provide evidence of the commission of murder, kidnapping, robbery, extortion, bribery, escape of an offender in the custody of the Department of Corrections, destruction of public property by explosives, a sexual offense against a child, sex trafficking, a violation of NRS 200.463, 200.464 or 200.465, trafficking in persons in violation of NRS 200.467 or 200.468 or the commission of any offense which is made a felony by the provisions of chapter 453 or 454 of NRS.

      2.  A good faith reliance by a public utility on a court order shall constitute a complete defense to any civil or criminal action brought against the public utility on account of any interception made pursuant to the order.

      3.  As used in this section, “sexual offense against a child” includes any act upon a child constituting:

      (a) Incest pursuant to NRS 201.180;

      (b) Lewdness with a child pursuant to NRS 201.230;

      (c) Sado-masochistic abuse pursuant to NRS 201.262;

      (d) Sexual assault pursuant to NRS 200.366;

      (e) Statutory sexual seduction pursuant to NRS 200.368;

      (f) Open or gross lewdness pursuant to NRS 201.210; or

      (g) Luring a child or a person with mental illness pursuant to NRS 201.560, if punished as a felony.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743; A 1975, 1520; 1993, 99; 2001, 2794; 2003, 1387; 2011, 20; 2013, 2421)

      NRS 179.465  Disclosure or use of intercepted communications.

      1.  Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, or 704.195 or 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510 to 2520, inclusive, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, may disclose the contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer or use the contents to the extent that the disclosure or use is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure.

      2.  Any person who has received, by any means authorized by NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, or 704.195 or 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510 to 2520, inclusive, or by a statute of another state, any information concerning a wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with the provisions of NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, may disclose the contents of that communication or the derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any criminal proceeding in any court or before any grand jury in this state, or in any court of the United States or of any state, or in any federal or state grand jury proceeding.

      3.  An otherwise privileged wire or oral communication intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, or 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510 to 2520, inclusive, does not lose its privileged character.

      4.  When an investigative or law enforcement officer engaged in intercepting wire or oral communications as authorized by NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, intercepts wire or oral communications relating to offenses other than those specified in the order provided for in NRS 179.460, the contents of the communications and the evidence derived therefrom may be disclosed or used as provided in subsection 1. The direct evidence derived from the communications is inadmissible in a criminal proceeding, but any other evidence obtained as a result of knowledge obtained from the communications may be disclosed or used as provided in subsection 2 when authorized or approved by a justice of the Supreme Court or district judge who finds upon application made as soon as practicable that the contents of the communications were intercepted in accordance with the provisions of NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, or 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510 to 2520, inclusive.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1743; A 1983, 117; 1989, 658)

      NRS 179.470  Application for order authorizing interception of communications; prerequisites to issuance of order.

      1.  Each application for an order authorizing the interception of a wire or oral communication must be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a justice of the Supreme Court or district judge and must state the applicant’s authority to make such application. Each application must include the following information:

      (a) The identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer making the application, and the officer authorizing the application.

      (b) A full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant to justify the applicant’s belief that an order should be issued, including:

             (1) Details as to the particular offense that is being, has been or is about to be committed.

             (2) A particular description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted, the facilities to be used and the means by which such interception is to be made.

             (3) A particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted.

             (4) The identity of the person, if known, who is committing, has committed or is about to commit an offense and whose communications are to be intercepted.

      (c) A full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous.

      (d) A statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is such that the authorization for interception should not automatically terminate when the described type of communication has been obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur thereafter.

      (e) A full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the person authorizing and making the application made to any judge for authorization to intercept wire or oral communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places specified in the application, and the action taken by the judge on each such application.

      (f) Where the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such results.

      2.  The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence under oath or affirmation in support of the application. Oral testimony must be reduced to writing.

      3.  Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing interception of wire or oral communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the court in which the judge is sitting, if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that:

      (a) There is probable cause for belief that a person is committing, has committed or is about to commit an offense for which interception is authorized by NRS 179.460.

      (b) There is probable cause for belief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception.

      (c) Normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or appear to be too dangerous.

      (d) There is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where, the wire or oral communications are to be intercepted are being used or are about to be used by such person in connection with the commission of such offense or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1744; A 1983, 118)

      NRS 179.475  Order authorizing interception of communications: Contents; duration; extension.

      1.  Each order authorizing the interception of any wire or oral communication shall specify:

      (a) The identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted.

      (b) The nature and location of the place where or communication facilities to which authority to intercept is granted, the facilities to be used and the means by which such interceptions shall be made.

      (c) A particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates.

      (d) The identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, and of the person authorizing the application.

      (e) The period of time during which such interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been first obtained.

      2.  An order authorizing the interception of a wire or oral communication shall, upon request of the applicant, direct that a communications common carrier, landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that such carrier, landlord, custodian, or person is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted. Any communications common carrier, landlord, custodian or other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be compensated therefor by the applicant at the prevailing rates.

      3.  No order entered under this section may authorize the interception of any wire or oral communication for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization, and in no event longer than 30 days. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with the procedures provided in NRS 179.470. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event for longer than 30 days. Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise subject to interception under this statute, and shall terminate upon attainment of the authorized objective, or in any event in 30 days.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1745)

      NRS 179.480  Progress reports to judge.  Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1746)

      NRS 179.485  Recording.  The contents of any wire or oral communication intercepted by any means authorized by NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive, shall, if possible, be recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the contents of any wire or oral communication under this section shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available to the judge issuing such order and sealed under the judge’s directions. Custody of the recordings shall be placed with whomever the judge directs. They shall not be destroyed except upon an order of the judge issuing such order and in any event shall be kept for 10 years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsection 1 of NRS 179.465 for investigations. The presence of the seal provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence thereof, is a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom under subsection 2 of NRS 179.465.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1746)

      NRS 179.490  Sealing of applications and orders; disclosure.

      1.  Applications made and orders granted under this statute shall be sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be placed with whomever the judge orders. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of a court of competent jurisdiction and shall not be destroyed except on order of the judge who issued or denied the order, and in any event shall be kept for 10 years.

      2.  Any violation of the provisions of this section may be punished as contempt of court.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1747)

      NRS 179.495  Notice to parties to intercepted communications.

      1.  Within a reasonable time but not later than 90 days after the termination of the period of an order or any extension thereof, the judge who issued the order shall cause to be served on the chief of the Investigation Division of the Department of Public Safety, persons named in the order and any other parties to intercepted communications, an inventory which must include notice of:

      (a) The fact of the entry and a copy of the order.

      (b) The fact that during the period wire or oral communications were or were not intercepted.

Ê Except as otherwise provided in NRS 239.0115, the inventory filed pursuant to this section is confidential and must not be released for inspection unless subpoenaed by a court of competent jurisdiction.

      2.  The judge, upon receipt of a written request from any person who was a party to an intercepted communication or from the person’s attorney, shall make available to the person or the person’s counsel those portions of the intercepted communications which contain the person’s conversation. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a district judge, the serving of the inventory required by this section may be postponed for such time as the judge may provide.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1747; A 1975, 1520; 1983, 119; 1985, 1976; 2001, 2572; 2007, 2077)

      NRS 179.500  Contents of intercepted communications inadmissible in evidence unless transcript provided to parties before trial.  The contents of any intercepted wire or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing or other proceeding in any court of this state unless each party, not less than 10 days before the trial, hearing or proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the court order and accompanying application under which the interception was authorized and a transcript of any communications intercepted. Such 10-day period may be waived by the judge if the judge finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with such information 10 days before the trial, hearing or proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving such information.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1747)

      NRS 179.505  Motion to suppress.

      1.  Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing or proceeding in or before any court, department, officer, agency or other authority of this State, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, on the grounds that:

      (a) The communication was unlawfully intercepted.

      (b) The order of authorization under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face.

      (c) The interception was not made in conformity with the order of authorization.

      (d) The period of the order and any extension had expired.

      2.  Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing or proceeding unless there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of NRS 179.410 to 179.515, inclusive. The judge, upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in the judge’s discretion make available to the aggrieved person or the aggrieved person’s counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interest of justice.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1747)

      NRS 179.510  Appeal by State from order granting motion to suppress.  In addition to any other right to appeal the State may appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made under NRS 179.505 if the Attorney General or district attorney certifies to the judge or other official granting such motion that the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken within 30 days after the date the order of suppression was entered and shall be diligently prosecuted as in the case of other interlocutory appeals or under such rules as the Supreme Court may adopt.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1748)

      NRS 179.515  Reports by justices of Supreme Court, district judges, Attorney General and district attorneys.

      1.  In January of each year, the Attorney General and the district attorney of each county shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts the information required to be reported pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 2519. A copy of the report must be filed with the Investigation Division of the Department of Public Safety. In the case of a joint application by the Attorney General and a district attorney both shall make the report.

      2.  Every justice of the Supreme Court or district judge who signs an order authorizing or denying an interception shall, within 30 days after the termination of the order or any extension thereof, file with the Investigation Division of the Department of Public Safety on forms approved by the Division a report containing the same information required to be reported pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 2519. The report must also indicate whether a party to an intercepted wire communication had consented to the interception.

      3.  The willful failure of any officer to report any information known to the officer which is required to be reported pursuant to subsection 1 or 2 constitutes malfeasance in office and, in such cases, the Secretary of State shall, when the wrong becomes known to the Secretary of State, institute legal proceedings for the removal of that officer.

      4.  The Investigation Division of the Department of Public Safety shall, on or before April 30 of each year, compile a report consisting of a summary and analysis of all reports submitted to the Division pursuant to this section during the previous calendar year. The report is a public record and may be inspected by any person during the regular office hours of the Division.

      (Added to NRS by 1973, 1748; A 1975, 1520; 1981, 2009; 1983, 120; 1985, 1977; 2001, 2573)

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

      NRS 179.525  Temporary changes in telephone service permitted where hostages are being held or suspects are barricaded.

      1.  A supervising peace officer who, with other officers, or any peace officer who, alone, is attempting to gain control of a situation in which a person:

      (a) Is holding another as a hostage, whether or not the life of the hostage has been threatened; or

      (b) Has committed or is believed to have committed a crime, is barricaded in an area or structure and is resisting arrest through the use or threatened use of force,

Ê may direct the public utility which provides telephone service to the area or structure in which the hostages are being held or persons are barricaded, or to an area which is close to that area or structure, to interrupt the service on, divert, reroute or otherwise make temporary changes in telephone lines to enable the peace officer making the request to establish communication with the person holding the hostage, or among peace officers, or to deny communication to the person holding the hostage.

      2.  Each public utility which provides telephone service in this State shall designate an employee and an alternate to supervise in performing the orders of a peace officer who is carrying out the purposes of this section.

      3.  A reliance in good faith by a public utility on the order of a peace officer pursuant to this section constitutes a complete defense to any civil or criminal action brought against the public utility on account of any interruption, diversion, rerouting or change in telephone service made in response to the order.

      (Added to NRS by 1981, 1561)

      NRS 179.530  Order authorizing use of pen register or trap and trace device.

      1.  District courts of this state may issue orders authorizing the use of a pen register or trap and trace device upon the application of a district attorney, the Attorney General or their deputies, supported by an affidavit of a peace officer under the circumstances and upon the conditions prescribed by 18 U.S.C. §§ 3121-3127 as those provisions existed on July 1, 1989.

      2.  As used in this section, “peace officer” means:

      (a) Sheriffs of counties and metropolitan police departments and their deputies;

      (b) Personnel of the Department of Public Safety who have the powers of peace officers pursuant to NRS 289.270;

      (c) Police officers of cities and towns;

      (d) Agents of the State Gaming Control Board who are investigating any violation of subsection 2 or 3 of NRS 463.360 or chapter 465 of NRS;

      (e) Special investigators employed by the Attorney General who have the powers of peace officers pursuant to NRS 289.170;

      (f) Investigators employed by a district attorney who have the powers of peace officers pursuant to NRS 289.170; and

      (g) The Inspector General of the Department of Corrections and the criminal investigators employed by the Department who have the powers of peace officers pursuant to NRS 289.220.

      3.  A public utility that relies, in good faith, upon an order of a district court authorizing the use of a pen register or trap and trace device is not liable in any civil or criminal action brought against the public utility for the use of the pen register or trap and trace device in accordance with the order of the court.

      (Added to NRS by 1989, 1134; A 1991, 969; 1993, 83, 2528; 2001, 2573; 2011, 21, 726)

      NRS 179.535  Receipt for property taken from person arrested for public offense.  When money or other property is taken from a defendant arrested upon a charge of a public offense, the officer taking it shall at the time give duplicate receipts therefor, specifying particularly the amount of money and the kind of property taken, one of which receipts the officer shall deliver to the defendant, and the other of which the officer shall forthwith file with the clerk of the court to which the deposition and statements must be sent.

      (Added to NRS by 1967, 1461)